BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY

BULLETIN 46 PLATE 1

CYRUS BYINGTON

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY

BULLETIN 46

A DICTIONARY OF THE CHOCTAW LANGUAGE

BY

CYRUS BYINGTON

EDITED BY

JOHN R. SWANTON AND HENRY S. HALBERT

WASHINGTON

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1915

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY,

Washington, D. C., April 22, 1909.

SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith for publication, with your approval, as a bulletin of this Bureau the manuscript of "A Dictionary of the Choctaw Language," by the late Cyrus Byingtoii, under the editorship of Dr. John R. Swanton.1 Very respectfully, yours,

W. H. HOLMES, Chief.

Dr. CHARLES D. WALCOTT,

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.

i Subsequently, as stated in Dr. Swanton's Introduction, Mr. Henry S. Halbert became associated with him in the editorship.

304318

CONTENTS

Page. Introduction vn

Phonetic key x

Choctaw-English vocabulary 1

English-Choctaw index 379

ILLUSTRATION

PLATE 1. Cyrus Byington - - - frontispiece

v

A DICTIONARY OF THE CHOCTAW LANGUAGE

By CYRUS BYINGTON

EDITED BY

JOHN R. SWANTON and HENRY S. HALBERT

INTRODUCTION By JOHN R. SWANTON

This dictionary represents a portion of the results of nearly fifty years of missionary service among the Choctaw Indians on the part of its compiler, Rev. Cyrus Byington. Mr. Byington was also the author of translations into Choctaw of several books of both the Old and the New Testament, Choctaw almanacs,' a Choctaw definer, a grammar of the Choctaw language, and some minor writings. His grammar, edited by Dr. D. G. Brinton, was published in Philadel phia in 1871, in the Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society (vol. 11, pp. 317-367). In the introduction to this grammar Dr. Brinton gives the following account of the author's life:

* This eminent scholar and missionary, whose name is inseparably connected with the later history of the Choctaw nation, was born at Stockbridge, Berkshire County, Mass., March 11, 1793. He was one of nine children, and his parents were in hum ble circumstances, but industrious and respected. His father was at one time a tan ner, and subsequently a small farmer. Necessarily, therefore, his early education was limited.

When a well-grown lad he was taken into the family of Mr. Joseph Woodbridge, of his native town, from whom he received some instruction in Latin and Greek, and with whom he afterward read law. In 1814 he was admitted to the bar, and prac ticed a few years with success in Stockbridge and Sheffield, Mass.

His father though a moral was not a religious man, and it seems to have been only after he reached manhood that Mr. Byington became, as he expressed it, "a subject of divine grace. " He then resolved to forsake the bar and devote himself to mis sionary life. With this object in view he entered the theological school at Andover, Mass., where he studied Hebrew and theology, and was licensed to preach, Septem ber, 1819. At this time he hoped to go to the Armenians in Turkey. But Provi dence had prepared for him another and an even more laborious field.

For about a year he preached in various churches in Massachusetts, awaiting some opportunity for missionary labor. Toward the close of the summer of 1819, a com pany of 20 or 25 persons left Hampshire County, Mass., under the direction of the American Board of Missions, to go by land to the Choctaw nation, then

VIIT BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 46

resident in Mississippi. They passed through Stockbridge, in September, and were provided with a letter from the Board, asking Mr. Byington to take charge of them, and pilot them to their destination. He \vas ready at a few hours' notice.

The company journeyed by land to Pittsburgh, where they procured flatboats, and floated down the Ohio and Mississippi to a point near the mouth of the Yalobusha River, whence a land journey of 200 miles brought them to their destination.

Throughout his missionary life Mr. Byington appreciated the value which a knowledge of the language and traditions of the Choctaws would have to scholars. From his arrival among them, therefore, he devoted assiduous labor to their language with a view to comprehend its extremely difficult construction, and to render it avail able for the missionary and philological student. The lirst draft of his Grammar was completed in 1834. It was written and rewritten, until at the time of his death, which occurred at Belpre, Ohio, December 31st, 1868, he was at work upon the seventh revisal.

As left by Mr. Byington, the Choctaw dictionary consisted of live paper- bound folio volumes, having entries on both sides of the leaves; the whole work was modeled after the English or classical dictionary of the author's time. Separate entries were therefore made of the same word when used as noun, adjective, verb, etc., each followed by a letter indicating the proper part of speech. The phonetic system was constructed for the greater part by employing the English letter representing most closely the Indian sound. Only two innovations were introduced the use of v (a true v sound not being present in the Choctaw language) for the obscure a, and of lines under the vowels to indicate nasalization. For these devices I have substituted the more commonly used a and n. I have also changed the aspirated I (M) into I. The sh and ch have been allowed to stand, although it is now customary to represent these by c and tc, respectively. Furthermore, in many instances I have combined in one word syllables separated by Mr. Byington and later missionaries as, for instance, the syllables indicating pronominal relations, the reflexive, the negative, and some of the tense signs for it is evident that in these cases the syllables all constitute one complex. Undoubtedly absolute accuracy has not been attained in this particular, but the course followed is certainly a move in the right direction. With the exceptions just mentioned the mate rial is reproduced substantially as recorded by the author. It would be fair neither to Mr. Byington nor to the editors, however, to pre sent the dictionary as a finished work. In the quotation given above Doctor Brinton speaks of the great care which the missionary bestowed on the manuscript of his grammar when preparing it for the press; unfortunately he had opportunity to make only a beginning1 in the editing of his dictionary. Many entries consisted merely of brief notes to be elaborated later or of references to cases not observed else where and to be explained by further investigations. But the plan which Mr. Byington had set before himself for his dictionary is one not now of much value to students of American languages, and to carry it to completion along those lines would involve an enormous

BYINGTON] A DICTIONARY OF THE CHOCTAW LANGUAGE IX

amount of unprofitable labor. Therefore the work is presented almost as he left it, as a source of valuable linguistic, and also ethnologic, information faithfully recorded by one of the most capable of the early missionaries at a time when many things were to be learned vvhicn are now doubtless entirely forgotten. In order to increase the utility of the dictionary an English -Choctaw index has been compiled and appended, which will make it possible to find where information is to be had regarding the Choctaw equivalent of each English word or phrase given. This part is in no sense a dictionary, nor is it to be regarded as such.

As might natural!}^ have been expected, Air. Byington's inspiring motive was his desire to translate the Biblical writings into Choctaw and to further the conversion of the Choctaw tribe to the Christian religion. The present work contains therefore numerous references to early translations of the Biblical writings undertaken by him. From the changes incorporated into later editions it is evident that the exact shade of meaning was not always determined in those first efforts, but, in any event, perhaps it could only have been approximated, and no attempt has been made to alter the references except in a few cases where palpable errors had been made. Nevertheless, these citations have been verified as far as possible and a few question marks inserted where no words resembling the ones under consideration could be found. In other instances it will be noticed that Mr. Byington has ignored certain affixes of common occurrence which alter the exact form as it appears in the text.

Anciently there were several Choctaw dialects, but only one of these, that of the Sixtowns Indians living in the southern part of the old Choctaw country, differed to any considerable degree from the stand ard, or Longtown, dialect spoken in the western part of the Nation. Moreover, this difference seems to have been confined mainly to cer tain words, involving but very slightly the language as a whole. A number of these Sixtowns words will be found interspersed through out the present work.

It has been my good fortune to have enlisted as coeditor Mr. Henry S. Halbert, of the Department of Archives and History, Montgomery, Ala., who has spent many years of his life among the Choctaw Indians, is familiar with their language, and is an enthusiastic student of everything relating to the history and present culture of the tribe. While he has noted and corrected many errors, he has deemed it best to let certain doubtful words and sentences stand as in the original manuscript, with the idea that they may represent certain dialectic or archaic variations which have escaped him.

Acknowledgment is here made of the courtesy of Mrs. Eliza Innes, of Lockesburg, Ark., daughter of the Rev. Cyrus Byington, and of that of her son, Mr. E. S. Byington, of Broken Bow, Okla., in

X BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 46

placing at the disposal of the Bureau the photograph from which the accompanying portrait of the author was reproduced; also his note books for the years 1844-46 and 1861.

Abbreviations. While a great many abbreviations have been used, most of these will be readily understood. 0. B. or B. indicates the compiler, Cyrus Byington; J. R. S. and H. S. H., the editors, J.ohn R. Swan to n, and Henry S. Halbert; respectively. Of the other abbrevia tions the principal are the following: a., adjective; adv., adverb; caus. , causative; con., connective; dem., demonstrative; dim. or dimin., diminutive; fern, or f., feminine; freq., frequentative; imp., im perative; mas. or m., masculine; n., noun; nas. form or n. f., nasal form; per., personal; pi. or plu., plural; pro., pronoun, also pro longed; refv reflexive; sing, or s., singular; v. a. i., active intransitive verb; v. i., intransitive verb; v. n., neuter verb; v. t., transitive verb. Besides these will be found the names and initials of various Choctaw Indians who are given as authorities for certain forms, and abbre viations of the names of other works in the Choctaw language.

The description of Choctaw phonetics which follows is taken from the first page of the manuscript dictionary, only such changes having been made as were necessitated by the innovations alread}7 referred to.

PHONETIC KEY ALPHABET

Letters Sounded

A a as a in father.

A a as v in tub, and a in above, around.

B b as in English.

Ch ch as in church.

E e as e in they, and short e as in met.

F f as in English.

Hh as in English.

I i as i in marine and short as i in pin.

K k as in English.

LI as in English.

LI as an aspirated I.

M in as in English.

N n as in English.

O o as o in note, go.

P . p as in English.

as in sir; never as * in his.

Sh sh as in shall.

T t as in English.

t u as oo in wool, u in full.

W \v as in war, we.

V y as in you.

DIPHTHONGS

Ai ai as / in pine.

An au as otr in now, how.

BYINGTON] A DICTIONARY OF THE CHOCTAW LANGUAGE XI

NASALIZED VOWELS

These are pure nasals, and retain the vowel sounds, except before the letter k, in which case they are like the long ang, ing, ong, ung. The usual sound is softer than «n<j, and like that of the Erench vowel followed by n in the same

Un ur

syllable. CONSONANTS AND VOWELS

Let it be remembered that each consonant has but one sound and that the sounds ascribed to the vowels are such as they have, respectively, in accented syllables; in unaccented syllables they have the sound of short vowels. English readers should remember not to give the English sound to the vowels, except as noted in the alphabet.

an, in, on, and tt», or some of them, are used as separate words or final syllables. They are used also before the consonants and semivowels b, f, It, k, m, n,'s, sh, w, and ?/. Before the consonant p, sometimes before 6 and the vowels, for the sake of euphony the letter m is added, or the nasal sound becomes m of necessity from the position of the organs of speech at that time, as am, im, out, urn.

Before cJi, I, t, and I the letter n is added, as an, in, on, un, and before the vowels in many words the letter n is added to the nasal. an is never used; <tn is used in its place. The vowel e is never used as a nasal, in being used in its place.

In making these remarks general rules are stated. It is not to be supposed that each and all of the nasals are thus used. There are exceptions, which the student must be ready to notice. An unwritten language has its anomalies and irregularities.

CHOCTAW- -ENGLISH VOCABULARY

84339°— Bull. 40 15 1

CHOCTAW— ENGLISH

a, the first letter of the alphabet, sounded as a in father.

a (when followed by a verb beginning writh a consonant), adv. or locative par ticle or prefix, means there, in that place, at that time, at, from, on, in, of, by; when the verb begins with a vowel, « becomes at; achumpa, to bury at; aminti, to come from; aiilli, to die at or in. a and ai are used where in Eng lish place is used; nusi, to sleep; anusi, a sleeping place; aiimpa, an eating place, a plate, dining room, table; chik- aiamiho, repeated in Matt. 5: 35; of, in chianukshopa, he is afraid of you; chi- atoba, he is begotten of you: by, in aiok- chanya, to live by, Matt. 4: 4: used as a sign of the future tense; chi chia, cf. John 1: 49; achin, ahe, ahinla; atuk, ashke, as satoshbihashke; siakmat, hymn 66, v. 2: prefixed to a verb often changes the verb to a noun, as aminti, a source; literally, to come from; isht ahachia, see John 15: 3; aiatta, a resi dence; lit., to stay at. a and ai are much used as prefixes in compound ing words: prefixed to some cardinals the latter become ordinals, as tuklo, two; atukla, second; atuchina, third; and be fore a vowel a becomes ai, as ushta, four; aiuslita, fourth: an intensive be fore consonants; aputta, abillia, afehna: used before tuk and tok and their com pounds a partakes of the sense of a defi nite article or of a relative pronoun. Sabannahatuk, that which I wanted; "This is used when the person has some doubt as to obtaining the thing sought, while sabannashke indicates a certainty in the expectation." J. Hud son.

a, ah, v. a. i., to say, to tell, to call; a- //', I say; alikamo, I did say, and you know it; imalikashkint, I told him so before, or that is what I told him, and you heard it (kashkint implies previous knowledge on the part of the hearer as well as on that of the speaker) ; alahe keyu, I should not call, Acts, 10:28.

an [cf. at]. 1. A determinative particle in the objective case after nouns and meaning the; as, wak an />lmli, I see the cow. Sometimes this article is pro nounced han and yan [cf. hat and yaf] for euphony. It is also a sign of, or with, the future tense, and is used as a par ticle of specification or emphasis after verbs in present, future, and past tenses; innukhanklotokan, Luke 10: 37; katimichi- lahean, future tense, Luke 18: 41; h<>i><>- nai/olahe a», Luke 18: 41. See Matt. 15: 31 for instances in the past tense; [also] onanshahatok, Matt. 28: 2. Cheluselem a», Jerusalem it, Matt. 2:1. 2. A rela tive pronoun in the objective case after verbs and adjectives and equivalent to the English relatives the which, the one which, that which, etc. It may also be translated by the personal pro nouns him, her, it, them, as Lakab «n, Rachab her, Matt. 1 : 5. It is sometimes written han or yan; cf. hat and yqt. The aspirated forms are ah, hah, and yah.

an, a dative pronoun first per. sing., my; to or for me; as, anholisso, my book. Written also am and an; as amisuba, my horse, lit., horse to or for me; anhoii- topa, Matt. 3: 17. When it stands be fore a verb, or a word where a verb is understood, it is generally translated by a preposition; as, for me, to me, of me,- from me; anholissochi, write for me, or tome; anpota, lend me; anchumpa, buy of me, or buy for me; written also am, as amithana, to learn of me. In the negative forms this pronoun is written sanaudsam; asiksanchumpo, iksamiksho, I have none, or there is none by me; chiksanpeso, you have not seen of mine, or for me.

abaha, n., a mortar for mixing meat and corn by beating or braying; a meat mortar.

abaiya, n., the side, as the side of a creek, swamp, or road.

abaiya, v. a. i., to be along the side of; to lie along the side of.

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[BULL. 46

abaiyachi, v. a. i., to go along th'e side of; to roam up and down; to range; to wind its way, as a bullet discharged and lodged in a deer, or a man going along on the side of a swamp.

abaiyachi, n., a roamer; one that goes along the side of a creek, etc.

abaiyachi, adv., lengthwise (of a field); aJiekqchi (of cloth), q. v.

abaiyaka, 11., the side of a swamp or creek.

abaiyat, adv., alongside of, along; as abaiijqt any a, two verbs connected by the letter t, meaning to be at the side of and go along; bok abaiijqt anya, to go along the side of the creek; hina abaiyat anya, to go along the roadside.

abakli, v. a. i. pi., to split into large pieces, blocks, slabs, or bolts for shin gles.

abakli, pass., split; split into bolts.

abakli, n., the place where the wood is split; a split.

abaklichi, v. t. cans., to split into large pieces; to score off large pieces when hewing logs.

abaklichi, n., a splitter; a scorer.

abaksacheka, n., a declivity; aside hill, or mountain side, 2 Sam. 16: 13.

abaksileka, n., a mountain side; the mountain side.

abaksha, abbaksha, n., the name of the serpent commonly called chicken snake.

abana, pass, of abqnni; aiitqbana, fuunded upon, Matt. 7: 25.

abanali, v. tr. or intr., to lay on the neck, or shoulder; hqshilabanali, Matt. 11: 2<>, 30; isfit iabqnali, Luke 15: 5.

abani, v. t. (pass., albqni), to cure by drying over a fire; "to barbecue;" vale it I pi a/Km/, to cure beef; takkon abani, to dry peaches over a fire.

abani, n., a curer; one who cures meat or fruit over a fire.

abasa, n. [from a bust i, to lay laths], lath; the ribs of a roof.

abasali, v. i., to sprout; to germinate; tanclii (if abasali, the corn sprouts.

abasali, abasalih, n., a sprout.

abasalichi, v. t. cans., to cause to sprout.

abachechi, v. t. cans., to practice; to teach by practice.

abachi, v. t., to teach, Matt. 15: 9; ima- bqchi, Matt. 5: 2; abahanchi, Matt. 13: 52, 54; holisso han imabqchi, to teach him the book or the letters. Passive qlbqchi.

abachi, v. a. i., to practice; to learn by practice; to exercise.

abachi, n., a practicer.

abachi, n., an exercise; a practice; nan isht imabachi, his doctrine.

abankachi, pi. pass., laid across; lying crosswise, as timbers at the corner of a house, or as rails in a worm fence.

abanni, v. t. pi., to lay across, as the logs of a house; abana, pass, sing., laid across; itabana, pass., laid across one another, as house logs at the corners; itabqnni, to raise a log house; to lay across one another.

abasli, v. t., to lay laths; to lath; to lay the ribs of a roof.

abasli, n., he that lays laths.

abaslichi, v. t., to cause laths to lie.

abasha, n., a sawpit; a place cut with a knife, a saw, or an ax; a gash.

abasha, n., a place sawn; a cut with a knife; a wound; a gash made by a knife, scythe, sickle, or ax; harvest, Matt. 13: 30; abqdia, pp., sawed at.

abasha, n., a mill; a sawmill.

abashli, v. t., to cut at; to cut there or upon with a knife, scythe, or sickle, or an ax, except in cutting wood; to cut with a drawing motion; chanli is to cut with a striking motion.

abashpoa, n., a place swept; pansJi])oa, pass., swept, Matt. 12: 44; Luke 11 : 25.

abeha, v. a. i. pi., to be in, Matt. 2: 11; to enter in; okhissa iskitinosi akon hash aiabehasJike, enter ye in at the strait gate, Matt. 7: 13; to go in; ont ilabeha- heakon, we go away into, Matt. 8: 31; also, Matt, 12: 45; 14: 22. Passive, qlbeha, John 6: 22; 21: 3.

abeha, pass, pi., put in; put on; rammed in.

abeha, a., fraught; full.

abeha, n., those which are in or on.

abehkachi, v. a. i. pi., to be clothed, Matt. 11: 8; Rev. 7: 9; na fohka Jiofa- loha dbehkqchi, Mark 12: 38.

abehma, a., farther up; higher up; abefuiia talalituk, he set up. See abema.

BYINGTON]

A DICTIONARY OF THE CHOCTAW LANGUAGE

abehpa [from abeha], v. a. i. dual, to enter; to come in.

abeka, n., sickness; disease; malady; illness; a disorder; a distemper; an in disposition; isht abeka, infection, lit., sick with, or by means of; cause of sickness.

abeka, n., the sick; the person or per sons affected with disease; abeka im- a^sha, their sick, Matt. 14: 14.

abeka, a., sick; unwell; diseased; in disposed; out of health; disordered; ill; sickly; unsound; isht abeka, a., in fected; sick with; neg., ikabeko, salu brious; not sickly. See Matt. 9: 2.

abeka, v. t., to be sick; to be unwell, diseased, or indisposed.

abeka, v. a. i., to sicken; isht abeka, sick of, Matt. 8: 6, 14; 9: 6.

abeka, pass., distempered.

abeka apistikeli, n., a nurse; a watcher.

abeka apistikeli, v. t., to watch the sick; to nurse; to tend the sick.

abeka ch.uh.mi, a., poorly; sickly; some what sick.

abeka haleli, v. t., to take a disease by infection; to catch sickness.

abeka haleli, n., contagion; infection.

abeka haleli, a., contagious; infectious; catching.

abeka lakna, n., the yellow fever; jaundice; lit., yellow sickness.

abeka okpulo, n., a fatal or mortal sick ness; applied to a pest; a pestilence; a plague; the cholera.

abeka shali, n., sickliness; a., sickly.

abeka shali, n. , an invalid.

abeka yatuk, v. t., that were diseased, Matt. 14: 35.

abekachi, v. t. caus., to sicken; to make sick; to disease; to distemper; to indis pose; isht abekachi., v. t., to infect; to sicken by means of; ilabekachi, 2 Sam. 13: 2, 5, 6.

abekoma, v. a. i., to be sickly, as T'nnoti abekoma, 1 Tim. 5 (heading).

abela (from abili) , pp. poled; bushed.

abela, n., the place or thing poled or bushed.

abeli, v. t. pi. of fohki, to put in, Mark 12: 42; to put on; to ring, i. e., to fit with a ring, as the fingers; to stuff.

abeli, n., he who puts on or in.

abema, abehma (from aba and imn),

v. i., to be half way; to be higher up. abenili, abinili (from a, there, and

binili, to sit), v. a. i., to sit down at;

to settle at, as in making any place a

home. abenili, abinili, abenili, n., a settler; a

colonist; the sitting down or meeting,

as at a "cry;" a colony, see okla ivihn

abinili, Acts 16: 12. abenilichi, abinilichi, v. t., to settle;

to establish in business or in life, or at

any place. abenilichi, abinilichi, n., one that settles

another in a place, or in business. abeta, abita, passive of '.ibili, poled. abi, v. t, to kill, Gen. 37: 26. See

abi, from which abi, is derived by

lengthening the first vowel; abitok <in,

which killed, Luke 13: 4. abicha, abicheli, n., a tap hole; a bung- hole; a faucet; a spout. abichakali, a., nineteen. abichakaliha, adv., nineteen times; abi-

chakaliha piscdi katno, I did see it

nineteen times. abicheli, see abicha. abicheli isht akamassa, n., a spigot; a

spile.

abichkachi, n. pi., tap holes. abila, v. a. i., to thaw, as snow or ice; to

thaw there; to melt at or there; pi.,

abela; (taloa kat sachunkash a abelah

J. E.); ikabilo, or ikabelo, a., undis-

solved, where it does not melt, abilia, adv., always, John 11: 42. abila, pass, of abili, poled; bushed;

pointed at. abilepa, n., the place aimed at, or

pointed at.

abilepa, a., seated round, abilepa, v. a. i., to be seated round. abili, v. t. pi., to set in by the end$;

to stick; to pole; to bush; to furnish

with poles or bushes, as peas or beans, abilibli, v. t. sing., to point at a place

or thing, some object, abina, n., a camp; a lodging out of doors

with or without a shelter overhead, abina, v. i., to camp; to encamp; to lodge

out of doors. abinachi, n., an encampment.

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abinanchi, n., a place where a camp is being made, Josh. 4: 8. [the ed. of 1852 has abinachi].

abinanchi, v. t., to be making a camp at.

abinachi, v. t., to make a camp.

abinili, abenili (q. v. ), v. i. sing., to sit at or on; to settle at.

abinili, pass., peopled.

abinili, n., a settler.

abinili, n., settlement; the place where one sits; a seat; a pew; abinit is con tracted from abinili.

abinilichi, see abenilichi.

abinilit nan apesa, abinit nan apesa, n., a judgment seat.

abinoli, v. a. i. pi. of abinili.

abinoli, n. pi., settlers.

abinoli, n. pi., settlements.

abinolichi, v. t. pi., to settle; to estab lish at a place; to colonize; to cause to take seats, as children or visitors.

abinot manya, to sit round.

abishlichi, n., a milk pail; any vessel to milk into.

abita, see abeta.

aboha, n., a house; a building; a dwell ing; a residence; a cabin; a room; a dome; a domicile; a door, &$ abohaftsha , he is indoors; a fabric; a habitation; housing; a lodging; a mansion, Matt. 17: 25; Luke 15: 8; qmabohu yan, un der my roof, Matt. 8: 8.

aboha abaska, n., a gaming house; a gambling room.

aboha achafa, n., one room; the other room; a single room.

aboha afoha, n., an inn; a house of rest.

aboha ahoponi, n., a kitchen; a cook room; a galley or caboose on ship board.

aboha aiimpa, n., a dining room; an inn; a tavern; a refectory; an eating house.

aboha aionholmo itiitikoli, n. pi., raft ers of a house; sing., <tbolm au>»holin<> itiitikili, a rafter.

aboha anusechi, v. t., to entertain; to lodge in a room.

aboha anusi, n., a bedroom; a lodging room; a dormitory; a bower; a cham ber, 2 Sam. 13: 10.

aboha anutaka, n., the place under a house.

aboha anutaka kula, n., a cellar.

aboha apalaska, n., a bake house; a

bakery. aboha apisa, n., a glass window; a

house window.

aboha apisa aialbiha, n., a window sash. aboha apishia, n., a piazza; a veranda;

a shed that extends quite round the

house. aboha anshaka okhissa, n., a back

door; a door in the rear of a house. aboha atampa, n., an adjoining room;

a separate room; a spare room. aboha ayupi, n., a bath room; a bath ing house.

aboha chaha, n., a tower; a high house. aboha chito, n., a hall; a large house. aboha hanta, n., a white house; a

house of peace; a senate house; a state

house; a fane.

aboha hanta okla, n., Congress. aboha holitopa, aboha holitompa

(Matt. 26: 69), n., a palace; a temple;

a sacred house; a costly house. aboha hoshontika, aboha hoshintika,

aboha inhoshuntika, aboha impata,

n., a porch; a piazza; a portico; a ve randa; a stoop; a gallery. aboha inluksi, n., a house padlock. aboha inpaiasha, n., a larder; a meat

house. aboha intula, n., the foundation of a

house; the sill. aboha iskitini, n., a cabin; a cot; a

hut; a lodge; a small house. aboha isht holmo, n., a roof; a shingle;

a split board, aboha isht holmoali, n., eaves of a

house; edge of the roof. aboha isht okhilishta, n., a house door. aboha itabana, pass., built, as a house, aboha itabana, n., a building; a log

house. aboha itabanni, v. t., to build a log

house; to put up a house; to raise a

log house. aboha itabanni, n., a house raiser; a

house builder. aboha itatapa, n., an apartment; an

adjoining room; an additional room. aboha itintakla, n., a hall; space way;

the place between two or more houses. aboha itipatalhpo, n., a house floor. aboha ititakla, n., the hall, entry, or

passage; a space between the houses or

the rooms.

BYINGTON] A DICTIONARY OF THE CHOCTAW LANGUAGE

aboha kallo, n., a prison; a jail; a cas tle; a fortress; a strong room; a citadel;

a dungeon; a prison house; a ward,

Matt. 5: 25; 11: 2; 14: 3; 25: 36; Acts

16: 23; hold, Acts 4: 3. aboha kallo apistikeli, n., a jailer; the

keeper of a prison. aboha kallo apistikeli, v. t, to keep a

jail; to guard a prison, aboha kallo alhpinta, pi., the prison ers; see Acts 16: 25. aboha kallo chaha, n., a tower, aboha kallo foka, n., imprisonment;

incarceration, aboha kallo foka, pp., imprisoned;

confined in prison; confined; immured;

incarcerated; prisoned, aboha kallo foka, v. i., to lie in jail;

to be in prison. aboha kallo foka, n. sing., a prisoner;

a jail bird. aboha kallo foki, v. t. sing., aboha kallo

apitta, pi., to put in jail; to confine; to

immure; to incarcerate; to prison; to

imprison; to cast into prison. aboha kallo foki, n., an imprisoner. aboha kinaffi, v. t., to take down a

house. aboha kuchichi, v. t., to unhouse; to

turn out of a house; to turn out of

doors. aboha mismiki, n., a house with a roof

nailed on. aboha nan aiachefa, n., a laundry; a

wash room; the room where clothes

are washed. aboha nan chukushpa, n., household

stuff; furniture; aboha innan chokushpa,

its furniture. aboha nana aiasha, n., a lumber room;

a lumber house. aboha pakna, n., roof of a house, Josh

2: 6, 8.

aboha toshbi, n., rubbish, abohush atta, n., a cottager. abohushi, n. (dimin.), lit., " son of a

room," a closet, Matt. 6: 6; a cottage;

a cot; a small room; a hut. abohushi fohka, pp., closeted; put in

a closet.

abohushi fohki, v. t., to closet, abohushi fonka, a., being in a closet. aboluktoli, v. t., to surround there.

aboli, n., a thicket; a brake; a hedge.

aboli, n., a place of deposit; place of laying down anything; a deposit, Mark 12: 41.

abolichi, v. t., to hit, as fani it!, oyia- tuk an abolichi, hit the squirrel that was going up the tree; iti isht pala abolichi, strike the wedge.

abonuUi, v. t. sing., to roll up in; to fold up in; to infold; toinwrap; nantannaka- shofa linen achukma hon abonuUi, wrap ped it in a clean linen cloth, Matt. 27: 59; linen an abonuUi, wrapped him in the linen, Mark 15: 46; na lapushki linen on abonullit . . . fohkitok, wrapped it in linen and laid it in, Luke 2:7; 23: 53; nalllali on abonulli, Acts 5: 6.

abonullichi, v. t. caus., to cause it to be rolled up in; to wrap it up.

abonunta, pass, sing., rolled up; being rolled up in; ullonst at nalllali on abo nunta, the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, Luke 2:12.

abonunta, n., a wrapper.

abunkachi,pass. pi., infolded; in wrapped; rolled up in; rolled up.

abukbo, n., down, the fine soft feathers of fowls, particularly water-fowls.

abunni, v. t. pi., to roll up; to double up.

achafa (from chafa, to run), v. t. sing., ayilepa, pi. to run after; to run down; achafat abi, to run down and kill.

achanfa, a. (nasal form, from achafa one), being one out of a number.

achafoa, a., a few and scattering; here and there one; not many; rare; pre cious, 1 Sam. 3: 1; achafoa, pass., singled out.

achafoachi, v. t. cans., to select a few; to take a few; to cause a few to be taken.

achafoha, v. i., to be a few; achafonJia (nasal form), being a few.

achafolechi, achafolichi, v. t. caus., to select a few; to take here and there one; to single out, Matt. 25: 32.

achafoli, v. t., to select a few.

achaka, n., a continuation.

achaka, pass., spliced (from achakali}, continued; itachaka, pass., joined to gether, reannexed, spliced, united, welded; ikitachako, a., unconnected, not welded.

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY

[BULL.. 46

achanka, a. (nasal form), succeeding, following, next; itqcJianka, \. a. i., to join together.

achakalechi, v. t., to continue; to add.

achakachi, v. t., to cause to advance.

achakalechi, v. t. cans., to continue; to add on; to join to; itachakqlechi, v. t., to reannex; adiakalliichi (nasal form), to add; to continue; achakalinchimat, he added when, Luke 19: 11.

achakali, v. t. sing., to splice; to add to; to new lay an edge tool; applied to putting edge to an ax; to piece; to scarf; to subjoin; to unite; to weld; •ilqcltakqli, to splice together; to couple; to join; to scarf; /mx/t ilachakali, Matt. (>: '27.

achakali, achakallechi, n., one that splices, or new lays.

achakali, v. i. (acliakanli, nasal form; achakakanli freq. ), to advance, to con tinue; qbachakaliJosh. 5: 13andafc&a- chakall, are perhaps formed from this word.

achakli, v. t. pi. of achakali, to splice, etc.; qlJichqka, pass, sing.; qlhchqkoa, pass, pi.; itachakli (Heb. 4: 12), "joints;" UacJtakqchi, n., a joint; v. t., to splice and join together.

achakli, n., one that splices.

achaya , v. i. , to be wont ; to be accustomed to a place, as animals; wak at achai/qt tafia, the cattle are wont; ikachaijo, a., unwonted.

achanya, n., a cutting block; a chopping block; place cut, or wounded; a gash made by an ax; pass., wounded at, or there; n., a wound.

achayachi, v. t. cans., to accustom a creature to a place so that it will stay there; to wont; to habituate to a place.

achaba, asalbash, asachap, asalhchap, hahchaba, n.. a log foot-bridge; a log lying across a creek on which to pass over. [<tlich(ij> is the word for footlog in use among the Mississippi ( "hoc- taw.— II. S. II.]

achafa, achaffa, n., oneness; singleness; a unit; unity.

achafa, a., one; the other; another; a; an; certain; individual; particular; sim ple; single; sole; undivided, Matt. 8: 18; 12: (>; 17: 4; xalajt achafa, one; nan- ashqchi achafa, Luke 15: 7; hatak

achafa, a man, a certain man, Luke 15: 11; ninak achafa, a night, or all night.

achafa, v. n., to be one; to be single; achafa yoke, it is one; imachgfa, for him one, or, he has one; ikachafo, neg. form, not one; ibaiachqfa, Matt. 5: 25; achanfa, nasal form.

achafa, v. a. i., ishachqfa; isld ilachqfa, Gen. 1: 11; achafali, I make one; 1 do one; achafa si a, I am one.

achafa atampa, a., plural; more than one.

achafa yuka, a., dist. pro., each one; achafa aiyukqt koJichqt ihinya mat, John 8: 9; achafa aiyukali, every one, Josh. 6: 5; hatak achqfaiyukali, man by man, Josh. 7: 16.

achafahpi (from achafa and ahpi), v. a. i., to be the first one; the being the first one: achqfampi, nasal form and a., neither; with a neg., achqfampi keyu; achqfampi kia keyu, not either; not even one; not the first one.

achafali, v. t., to give one; to do one; to single out one, Matt. 6: 24; Gen. 2: 21; achqfalichit aiinhotofahian qlhpe- sahatok, for of necessity he must re lease one, Luke 2.S: 17.

achafalichi, v. t., to select out one; to make one of all, Eph. 1: 10.

achafalit, adv., achqfalit ixhi, each one take; individually take; achqfalit /»- nukk'dU cJta, or individually, Luke 16: 13; achqfat, an abbreviation; achafat ofi at qbi, for achqfalit ofi at qbi, the dog singled out one and killed it.

achafoa (see achafoa), John 8: 9 [in the printed edition achafa].

achafona, a. (from achafa one, and ona to reach to), even one; as much as one; perhaps one, Matt. 5: 30; (5: 29, 10: 2<); 18: 6, 10, 12.

achafonachi, v. t., to make one: to select out one, Luke 9: .'111.

achakaya, n., an addition, piece spliced on.

achakaya, a., spliced at.

achanaiya, v. i., siachquaii/a hnka (per haps a misprint for ftiafiqnnii/a hokn; see ahinna).

achapi, ahchapi, v. t., to play at a cer tain game of chance in vogue among the Choctaw. This is an ancient game, not in much use now; pass., qlhchqpl.

RYINGTON]

A DICTIONARY OF THE CHOCTAW LANGUAGE

achapi, n., a player of the above; one that plays; the play.

achchukmali, v. .t., intensive form, Matt. 17: 11; to improve; to repair; to make good; to ameliorate; to benefit; to better; to rectify; to regulate; to sub stantiate; ttaiachukmali, to justify him self, yammak ashot ilaiaadiukmali banna kat, he is willing to justify himself; Luke 10: 29.

acheba, a., mischievous; troublesome.

acheba, v. n., to be mischievous.

achebachi, v. a. L, to preserve; to hold out.

achefa, ahchifa (q. v.), v. t., to wash; to cleanse, Matt. 15: 2; pass., aJtcJt!fa,to be washed, Mark 7:5; ilaiachifa, to wash one's self, John 2: 6; to purify; pass., allicltefa, John 13: 10; ikahchifo, un- washen, Matt. 15: 20; alhchefa, pp., washed.

achelita, see addH'tta.

achi, v. a. i., to say; to speak; to call; to assert; to declare; to answer; quoth (as quoth he; quoth I); to rehearse; to suggest; to utter; John 1: 21; 3: 1; 4: 25; 1 Sam. 9: 9. uiachi pro., ahanchi, freq., Matt. 7: 27, 28; aiahanchi, pro. and freq. add awslia, to be said; this is an expression, not the passive form of add; achilok an aflshashke, Luke 4: 12; ikadio, not to say, the neg. form of achi; ikacho, a., undetermined; unsaid, ach- ishke, they say, Matt. 11: 19. acliit, adv., or a verb, to say and; when two verbs are thus united the first has an adverbial sense as in Heb., adiit anumpuli, really to say; really to speak; to say what he means; lit., he says and speaks; ach'd hodiifo, to call by name; lit., he says and names, achitanoll, v., to speak freely; without fear; lit., he says and declares.

achi, n., a maxim; a saying.

achi, n., a rehearser.

achin, chin, sign of the instant or imme diate future of the indicative mood, but it does not mean purpose or inten tion; it simply expresses futurity as to time; shall, will.

achiba, a., slow, laborious, tedious, be lated, hard, late, Mark 2: 9; occupying some time; see alichiba.

achiba, v. n., to be slow, laborious, or tedious; ahdiieba, pro. form of a/tc/u&a.

achibachi, v. t. caus., to cause to be slow, tedious, or troublesome.

achibali, v. t. , to render tedious; to pro tract; to draw out; chiksamaltddbalo kia, "trouble me not," Luke 11:7.

achifa, see achefa.

achik, fut. sign, will, shall; sameaso/n"; as ia laddie, I will go; anwninnadiik, he will speak.

achike, adv., probably will be, and