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ANNOTATIONES

ZOOLOGIC-H i PONENSES

SOCIETATIS ZOOLOGICA TOKYONENSIS

SERIATIM EDITA.

Volumen I.

Cum VII tabulis et XVI figuris in texto.

CONTENTS:

Partes I et II.

Published May 25, 1897.

I e tre stl RR te se à à» à K. Mitsukuri. ig Pear-boror (Nephopteryx rubrizonella, Kag.) With

ÉCRIRE ace n AI eee te esse eee els IUISUMAN A... 1. On Two New Species of Asthenosoma. With Plate II.....S. Yoshiwara...... 5. Chaetognaths of Misaki Harbor. With Plate IIL.......... Tre Ata ates 1. 13. On the Accommodation of Some Infusoria to the Solution

of Certain Substances in Various Concentrations....... AIR as aerei (23% On Changes which are found with Advancing Age in the

Calcareous Deposits of Stichopus japonicus, Selenka..K. Mitsukuri...... 31. Revision of Hexactinellids with Discoctasters, with De-

scriptions of Five New Species..….....…...........,......…. I Tunzeos nen... 43. Mis cellaMme GUS. NobES nee. « ee RER iena 61.

Ueber eine in Misaki vorkommende Art von Ephelota und iiber ihre Sporen- bildung, vou ©. Isarxawa.—-Die Entwickelung der Gonophoren bei Physalia maxima, von S. Goro.—On the Fate of the Blastopore, the Relations of the Primitive Streak, and the Formation of the Posterior End of the Embryo in Chelonia, together with Remarks on the Nature of Meroblastie Ova in Vertebrates, by K. Mrrsuxurt.—Living Specimen of Pleurotomaria Bey- richii.— The Ophiuran Shoal.—Zoological Society of Tokyo.—List of Japanese Zoologists.

Pars III. Published August 10, 1897.

On a Mode of the Passage of the Eye in a Flatfish......... T. Nishikawa..... 78. On the Growth of the Ovum in Chaetognaths. With

LA FRA Re SRO I SARAI RR AUTRE Te 77 Notes on the Paludina-Species of Japan. With Plate V...T. Iwakawa....... 83. Dendrocoryne, Inaba, Vertreterinn einer neuen Familie

dee Hydromedusen.: Mit Taf. VI... Sh GANN 93. On a New Species of Malacobdella (M. Japonica). With

LUE OR ee AAA tt! A eres nce PER U. Takakura...... 105. Notes on the Breeding Habit and Development of Rhaco-

phorus Behlegelii, Günther... An... essen Se 113. ME ee RN I ninni 123.

Zoological Society of Tokyo. —The Nee Imperial University of Kyoto.

WE

Pars IV. Published November 5, 1897.

Note on an Amphioxus obtained in Amakusa, Kyushyu...H. Nakagawa..... 125.

On a New Species of Elasipoda from Misaki.................. K. Mitsukuri...... 188. Preliminary Note on the Development of the Pronephros

in PetromyZON 2-28... BOARA stor: 137. Sur une nouvelle espèce japonaise du genre Lucernaria...A. Okd.......+.... 141. Sur une nouvelle espèce japonaise du genre Phoronis........ A SONATE a 147. Miscellaneous Notes... cesse TO 149.

The Occurrence of Sphærothuria bitentaculata, Ludwig in the Sagami Seas.— Contributions to the Morphology of Cyclostomata. I. On the Formation of the Heart in Petromyzon, by S. Harra.—Zoological Society of Tokyo. Personal News... ocean. E eee eee TI asile List of Publications received in exchange for the Anno-

tationes uutil October, 1897, arranged alphabetically

according to AUtOISTOFISOCIEHMES AN E I I emer 152. List of Names to which the Annotationes are regularly

SEHE suini rca zato nen nee anne en. en een ee EEE 152. List of Publications received by the Zoological Society of Tokyo before the issue of the Annotations.............. sese erre sirene» 159.

Erratum. In Mr. Ikeda’s paper beginning at page 113 read Rhacophorus instead of Raco-

phorus.

Ko HAAS 4 2 4 % di 45 3 KE _MW We StH A THA ER

UL 17 1897 ANNOPATIONES ZOOLOGICÆ JAPON ENSES AUSPICIIS

SOCIETATIS ZOOLOGICÆ TOKYONENSIS

SERIATIM EDITA.

Volumen I. Partes I et II.

TOKYO:

PUBLISHED May 25, 1897.

NOTICE. The Annotationes Zoologicæ Japonenses are published quarterly, in January, April, July, and October. Terms of subscription—$1®=4s=F5= M4 per annum; single parts 25&=1s=F1.25=MI1 each. Postage included in all cases. Remittances from foreign countries are to be made by postal money orders, payable in Tokyo to M. Namiye, Zoological Institute, Imp. Univ.,

Tokyo.

TO CONTRIBUTORS.

Articles may be written in English, German, French, or Italian.

Each contributor receives 50 copies of the reprints of his article gratis. Any number of extra copies will be furnished at cost.

Contributors are particularly requested to specify the number of reprints they want at the end of the manuscript. If not specified 50 copies will be delivered.

Articles may be accompanied by simple illustrations, as far as pos-

sible in lines and dots.

Communications are to be addressed to the Secretary of the Zoologic-

al Society of Tokyo, Zoological Institute, Imp. Univ., Tokyo.

INTRODUCTORY.

The duty of introducing the present modest publication to our fellow workers of other lands, and of explaining its aim and scope, having fallen on me, I feel that I can do this in no better way than by offering a brief retrospect of the progress of our science in Japan.

Until within a comparatively recent time, Japan was a sealed book to Europe. The name of our country stood in the West as the symbol of things strange, remote and antipodal. In the minds of Europeans, Japan has never been associated with science, except as an object of investigation ; and, if I mistake not, they would find something almost incongruous in the idea of contributions to the progress of modern science from Japanese sources. But if such a con- ception exists, it rests, I verily believe, on entirely unjust grounds. A slight acquaintance with the history of Japan would enable any one to see without much difficulty that a high degree of culture was attained at an early age in our land, and that there has ever been abroad a spirit of earnest study among our people. It would take me too far away from my immediate object to do any thing more than mention the existence of those masterpieces in literature and

art which were produced in the period extending from the sey nth to

ii INTRODUCTORY.

the tenth centuries of the Christian era and which have been the despair of all who have striven to emulate them in succeeding ages. But I may perhaps be allowed to cite a few facts having a closer connection with our subject, which would, I believe, go far to sub- stantiate what I have claimed for my country.

It is probably unknown to most persons in the West that early in the eighth century of the Christian era there was already estab- lished in Japan an Imperial University with four departments,— Ethics, History, Jurisprudence and Mathematics,—and with the pre- scribed number of four hundred students. There were also at the same time a bureau devoted to Astronomy, Astrology, Calendar-Com- pilation and Meteorology, and a Medical College with professors of Medicine, Surgery, Acupuncture, Necromancy (the art of healing by charms) and Pharmacology. The last named branch of study in- cluded the collection, cultivation, and investigation of medicinal plants, and thus a considerable amount of botanical knowledge must already have been acquired by that time. ‘Toward the end of the ninth century, when a catalogue of books existing in Japan was compiled by the order of the then reigning Emperor, the Imperial library was found to contain 16,790 volumes, divided into forty depart- ments,—and this in spite of a disastrous fire of some years previous. Among the medical works were some with very moderu sounding titles, such as The Curing of Diseases of Women” and “On the Methods of Healing Diseases of the Horse.” Japan in those early days derived its culture from India, China, and Corea, but the details above enumerated clearly show that educated society must already have attained a high degree of civilization.

Coming to more, modern times, it is known that, during the

INTRODUCTORY. lil

long peace of two hundred and fifty years which the rule of the T'oxuGawa shoguns secured for Japan, literature, the arts, and all peaceful industries were developed with remarkable vigor and rapidity, and that the study of Natural History shared in this pro- gress. Apart from that innate love of Nature and the natural which was ever showing itself in poetry and other arts, the study of natural products was always pursued, ostensibly with the purpose of collecting materia medicu, or of discovering things that might be used as food in case of a famine, or of identifying objects mentioned in the Confucian classic, Shi-King.” But it is not difficult to perceive that naturalists looked in reality beyond these simple or utilitarian ends, and investigated animals and plants for their own sake, although the principal aim of their researches seems to have been the comparatively barren one of establishing a relationship between Japanese products and those described in various Chinese works on Natural History. Frequent were the excursions and expeditions undertaken with the view of collecting natural objects, among which plants were especial favorites, and all parts of the country seem to have been tolerably well explored in this way. Numerous were the treatises on Natural History, published or unpublished. Many of. these were encyclopedic in their comprehensiveness and size, such as Shobutsu Ruisan,” by Inao Jakusut, (1000 parts, early in the eighteenth century), and ‘“Honzò Komoku Keimo” by Ono RANZAN (48 parts, 1803). The last named naturalist was so famous for his extensive knowledge that we are told, his pupils were nearly one thousand in number. My colleague, Prof. Marsumura, in his book on the enumeration of

Japanese plant-names, gives 306 titles of Japanese works on botany

1V INTRODUCTORY.

compiled previously to 1868. Many of the Natural History volumes had beautiful colored illustrations, which serve their pur- pose even at the present day. Natural History displays were of common occurrence, when naturalists came together with their treasures, and showed them to one another and to the public. Of these the exhibitions given by HiraGa GENNAI in the middle of the eighteenth century were perhaps the most celebrated. The present Botanic Garden of the Imperial University was established early in the TokUGAWA period, viz. in 1681, and was long renown- ed as the “O Yaku En” (Garden of Medicinal Plants). The mastery of the Dutch language by a few earnest physicians in the middle of the eighteenth century has always seemed to me one of the greatest triumphs ever achieved by patient scholarship. Originally undertaken with the purpose of ascertaining something about Western medicine, their efforts soon exerted an influence on all branches of learning. The whole rich treasury of Western civilization became suddenly accessible through the channel thus opened of the Dutch language. It is not possible to overestimate the effect of the new acquisition on the progress of Japan. Suffice it here to say that the country would not be what it is to-day, but for this leaven which had been working through and through the whole mass of society for over a hundred years before the Restoration of 1868 enabled it to bear its legitimate fruit. This innovation, ‘together with the visits of THUNBERG (1775) and SIEBOLD (1821), had due effect upon the Natural History studies also. The system of Linné, especially in regard to plants, seems to have been well grasped, with very little delay. The most famous

productions of the new school on Natural History subjects are pro-

INTRODUCTORY. V

bably Shokugaku Keigen” (Elements of Botanical Science) by UpAGawAa Yoan, 1835; and Somoku Zusetsu” (Icones Plantarum) by Imuma Yokusar, 1832 ;—the latter being a standard work at the present day. It is perhaps a circumstance interesting enough to record, that a work on the use of the microscope was published in 1801.

Looked at from the modern standpoint, the Natural History of the pre-Restoration period (before 1868) was without doubt strongest in Botany. Our science of Zoology seems to have been greatly backward in its development, compared with that of the sister science. and its study was probably similar in method and aim to that of the Middle Ages in Europe. It seems to have concerned itself mostly with making commentaries on Chinese works of Natural History, like Honzo Komoku” or with identifying Japanese objects with names given in those writings. Excepting a little on birds, fishes and shells, hardly any work that can be called scientific in any modern sense, seems to have been accomplished. Nevertheless this school did an immense service by showing that the study of natural objects was worth the best efforts of intellectual men. Names like Akar HAKUSEKI, INAo JAKUSUI, KAIBARA EKKEN, Ono RANZAN* are among the most honored in the annals of our learning.

With the Restoration of the Emperor to his full power, in 1868, came the wholesale reconstruction of all political institutions, and the country has been, and is still, going through such a social revolution as has seldom been witnessed in any part of the world. Along with many other things, the old school of Natural

* All these names are given in the Japanese fashion, with the surname first.

VI INTRODUCTORY.

History was swept away, as chessmen from the board at the end of a game. So far as our science is concerned, there is a complete break at this period. ‘The modern school of Zoology dates from the appointment of Prof. E. S. Morse of Salem, Mass., U. S. A. to the chair of Zoology at the University of Tokyo, in 1877. His indefatigable zeal and genial manners won many friends for the new science among all classes of society, while his lectures, popular or otherwise, drew attention for the first time to the im- mense strides which our science, under the stimulus of Darwinism, was making in the West. He, with a few students under him, also soon had in working order a tolerably good museum—the nucleus of the present Zoological and Anthropological collections sof the Science College. It was also during his stay and through his care that the Tokyo Biological Society, from which the Tokyo Zoological Society is directly descended, was first organized. It is truly wonderful how much he accomplished in the brief time he was in Japan. On the return of Prof. Morse to America, he was succeeded by Prof. C. ©. WHITMAN, now of the University of Chicago. It was the latter who first introduced modern technical methods. These two Americans, MORSE and WHITMAN, thus stood sponsors to the modern school of Zoology in Japan. Since 1881, the development of Zoology in this country has

been entirely in the hands of Japanese.* The spirit of earnest

(4

* Some who read this statement may consider that I have not given due credit to those zoologists from other countries who have lived in, or visited, Japan from time to time. It is certainly as far as possible from my iutention to slight the labors of HILGENDORF, DÖDERLEIN, PRYER and others, but the fact remains that the recent development of the zoological school in Japan has been almost entirely independent of these men. It is a pleasure to me to add that Mr. Owsron of Yokohama has been very active in unearthing the treasures of the deeper parts in the Sagami Sea. E

INTRODUCTORY. vil

study which signalized the Natural History School of the pre- Restoration days is happily revived, but with higher and wider purposes, and with greater facilities for successful attainment. Though only twenty years have passed since the “new departure,” a vigorous school of Zoology has already sprung up. I shall perhaps not be overstepping the bounds of modesty, if I say for my confreres that a more earnest, more enthusiastic, or more industrious set of men could with difficulty be found anywhere.

There can be no doubt that the establishment of the Marine Station at Misaki, by the Imperial University, in 1887, gave a great impetus to the study of Zoology in Japan. Situated at the point of the peninsula jutting out between the Bay of Sagami and the Bay of Tokyo, it has access to localities long since famous as the home of some remarkable forms of animal life. Along the coast, all sorts of bottoms are found, yielding a rich variety of animal forms, while the hundred-fathom line is within two or three miles of the shore, and depths of five hundred fathoms are not very difficult of approach. The existence of a remarkable deep-sea fauna in these profounder parts has been ascertained within the last few years, and zoological treasures are now being constantly hauled up. The great Black Current” (Kuro Shiwo) sweeps by, not many miles out, and a branch of it often comes into the very harbor of Misaki, gladdening the heart of the Plankton explorer. Face to face with this inexhaustible treasury of animal forms, the zoologist will have to possess unusual powers of self- restraint, indeed, not to grow enthusiastic over his science.

by the year 1888, the number of those devoted to the study

of Zoology in our country had so fax increased that the need of an

vili INTRODUGTORY.

organ of their own was felt. Thus was established in that year, under the auspices of the Tokyo Zoological Society, a monthly publication entitled the Döobutsugaku Zasshi” (Zoological Maga- zine). This had a twofold design; first, to serve as a means of communication among followers of the science in Japan, and secondly to spread the knowledge of Zoology among non-specialists, especially among teachers of the subject in primary and middle schools. The periodical is in the Japanese language, and popular as well as special papers have been published side by side. The Magazine is now in its ninth volume.

About the same time, the Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University, was established. Thus was opened a con- venient channel for carrying abroad the intelligence of scientific investigations conducted in Japan, and those who look over the ten volumes of the Journal will see that zoologists have not been slow in availing themselves of the opportunities afforded.

The prospects of our science in Japan have never been brighter than they are at this time. All of its main branches, including applications of it to practical purposes such as Fisheries, Sericulture, Entomology, ete. are now fairly represented. Hach year will see gradual additions to the specialists of different groups, as the number of graduates from the Imperial University in- creases. The Marine Station at Misaki, which has become too small for our growing body, will be removed within the present year to a new site, about two miles north of its present location, and its accommodations will be considerably enlarged. While perhaps not essential to the pursuit of science, the extreme

beauty of the situation, which commands a matchless view of

INTRODUCTORY. 1X

Fujiyama and the Sagami Bay, will certainly not lessen its attrac- tions; and an additional charm to those who are interested in the heroic achievements of the past may be found in the associations with which the spot abounds, as the ancient stronghold of a mighty warrior chieftain who was killed here in a desperate battle, after sustaining a long siege, and whose spirit is believed by the populace still to haunt the scene of his former greatness. A proposed railway, passing near the new site, will bring the station within two or three hours of Tokyo. A number of teachers scattered over different parts of the country are acting somewhat as sentinels at the outposts of our science, and doing good service in collecting animals from different localities. Our field of activity has also lately been suddenly widened by the addition of Formosa to the territory of Japan, and the work of a collecter now on that island will, it is hoped, be but the forerunner of many similar undertakings. Hardly a week now passes without something new turning up in the line of our study, and that something is often of great interest.

Under these circumstances, it has seemed to us very desirable that there should be opened some channel for communicating the progress of our science in Japan to fellow-workers in other coun- tries ;—some channel less formal than the Journal of the Science College, and one through which even little things may be made known. A beginning was made in this direction about two years ago, when a department written in Huropean languages was added to the Zoological Magazine, which has perhaps become known, through this feature, to some who read these lines. We now

feel justified in taking another step forward. Arrangements are

x INTRODUCTORY.

now completed for publishing the part written in European languages in an issue entirely separate from the purely Japanese text of the Magazine. The latter will now go on, containing sunply articles in our own language, and will be intended for internal circulation, with its original twofold object. The present publication will take the place of the foreign language part, and will be primarily for the purpose of making the progress of Zoology in Japan known abroad. It will be distributed among laboratories, museums, educational institutions, and various societies of different countries, much more extensively than was attempted with the Zoological Magazine. We regret that the limited funds at our command do not allow us to publish at as much length, or to make use of as good plates, as we desire, but it is hoped that in time there will be a marked improvement. For the present, the ANNOTATIONES will be issued quarterly, four numbers constituting an annual volume.

In future, therefore, zoologists of other countries may look for contributions to their science from Japanese sources in two publications :—for more extensive or monographic works in the

Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University, and for

shorter, less formal or preliminary notices in the present periodical.*

On behalf of my fellow-zoologists of Japan, I should like to make here an earnest appeal to societies, institutions and indivi- duals, the world over, to help us in our efforts, by sending their

publications to us. We who are so far from the centers of our

- * There are some other publications in which papers on zoological subjects are published from time to time, for instance, Bulletin of the College of Agriculture, Imp. Univ. It is our intention to call attention to them in this journal, when- ever occasion arises. a i

INTRODUCTORY. xl

science in Europe and America appreciate this favor more keenly, I think, than those situated more favorably have any idea of. Publications may be sent either to the Tokyo Zoological Society or to the College of Science.

We now send forth this magazine to our fellow-workers in other lands, asking their lenient judgment for whatever short- comings it may exhibit, and hoping that it will aid in promoting that fraternal feeling which must ever be characteristic of inter- national Science.

SALVE!

K. MirsugURI, Ph. D.

Professor of Zoology, Imperial University, and President of the Tokyo Zoological Society for 1896-7.

AL ae rar Mw.

Pear-borer (Nephopteryx rubrizonella, Rac.).

By M. Matsumura. Agricultural College, Sapporo, Hokkaido. With PI. I.

There are two species of our pear-borers belonging to the genus Nephopteryx, the present one being much larger than the other. In 1889, the smaller species was described by Mr. S. IkEDA of the Ag- ricultural College of Tokyo, in the Zoological Magazine, Vol. 1, page 99 ; but its life history was not known clearly at that time. By this larger borer our pear growers have been losing every year 30-50% of their crops, it being a much more troublesome insect than the apple-borer I have described in a recent number of the Zoological Magazine. Entomologically it belongs to Microlepidoptera, group Pyradina, family Phycidæ, and its generic and specific name was kindly identified for me by Mr W. J. HoLLanp of Pittsburg, through the kindness of Mr. O. Howarp, the first Entomologist in the Department of Agriculture, U.S. A.

Imago--Antenn® curved over the basal joint, the latter with a scaly tuft; labial palpi compressed, with a long end joint; maxillary palpi small and filiform ; anterior wing with 11 veins, branches 4th. and 5th. not being stalked; ground color varying form grayish brown to grayish black, crossed by two equidistant irregularly sinuated, grayish bordered black lines. Outer margin and basal half much deeper in color, with a black disco-cellular marking in the middle of the wing. Hind wing dark gray, with 8 veins, branches 3rd., 4th., and 5th. springing from a common stalk which rises from a hind angle of the closed

mid-cell.

2 M. MATSUMURA.

Thorax is of the same color as the anterior wing, abdomen much paler ; hind tibia large and compressed, with 4 spines. Wing expanse 25 mm., body length 12 mm.; two broods in a year, first middle July, second late September to early October.

Eggs—These are placed just under a small twig where the rain does not strike directly, protected safely by a white silken web. The eggs under that cover are about 20 in number; oblong in shape, both ends being a little narrower ; very flat ; black in color; 0,7 mm.x0,4 mm. in size and hybernating through the winter in this state.

Larva—The larva hatch in early june, just at the time when the pear attains the size of a cherry, at first spinning much silken thread on the branches and then making their way to different fruits near by. To the injured fruits are attached almost always silken threads just at the place of branch, where a fruit stalk hung. At first whitish in color, with black head and black first segment, the larve gradually change in color to grayish yellow; and when fully mature, they take a pinkish brown color, measuring about 20 mm. in length. They are spindle shaped in general, consisting of 12 segments, of which the Gth., 7th., and 8th. are the largest; head brownish black; the upper part of the second segment with 2 pitchy black horny spots ; legs show nothing unusual. They injure only the core of pears and as they leave always a large blackish opening at their entrance, it is easy to detect their presence. The larval stage lasts 3 weeks or more; the insects I cultured have made cocoons on the 30th. of June. Food plant only pear.

Pupa—It always changes to pupa within the core of the fruit spinning very little silk ; it is deep red brown in color, head, thorax and wing portion being much more so; it measures 13 mm.—15 mm. in length ; pupal stage lasts more than 2 weeks.

Preventive method—The most effectual preventive method is to take off the eggs during winter months, as they are easily recognizable by their whitish web cover at the branches. For this purpose pruning

is indispensable, eggs being almost always on the top of the branches e

PEAR-BORER. 3

and when pruned they must be immediately burnt up; the remaining branches must be carefully searched for. The eggs are always placed near the hybernating nest of the pear leaf roller Rhodophea hollandella, Rag. Kerosene emulsion is very beneficial after pruning as well as in early June, namely the time of larve hatching, for it kills at the same time the larve of the leafroller. After they bore into the fruit, no remedy is accessible, except carbon bisulphide, but this chemical being very expensive I only used it on a dwarf tree, pouring it with a small brush into the hole, through which insect entered; it very soon kills the insect and no injury was done to the fruit. Benzole also has the same effect, but inferior, and little injures the fruits. Now in our College garden, picking of the injured fruits by hands is the only means resorted to, as they are easily recognizable by their black holes and brown excrements. Lamp is of no use. Entomological Laboratory, Agricultural College, Sapporo. Jan. 5th. 1897.

Printed April 30. 1897.

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Annot. Zool. Jap., Vol. I. Tab. I.

Fig. 1; Imago enlarged. Eis i); larva.

Fig. III, A; Eggs under the Silky Cover. Fig. IV; Pupa in the Pear.

On Two New Species of Asthenosoma from the Sea of Sagami. By S. Yoshiwara.

Zoological Institute, Science College, Imp. Univ., Tokyo.

With Pl. Il.

The Echinoid collection of the Science College Museum contains, amongst others, five interesting specimens referable to the genus As- thenosoma, of which I propose to make two new species as described

below.

Asthenosoma longispinum, nov. sp. (Figs. 1-7.)

Four specimens of this species have been obtained from a depth of 313-376 fathoms in Sagami Sea.

Test flexible, disc-shaped, flat actinally, depressed abactinally, somewhat polygonal in ambital outline. Dimensions of the largest specimens : 135 mm. in diameter and 18 mm. in height. Color of covering membrane dark red as preserved in alcohol.

Plates numerous. In a specimen of 110 mm. in diameter, there are in a vertical row : actinally, about 17 interambulacral and about 23 ambulacral plates ; abactinally, about 30 interambulacral and more than 80 ambulacral plates. Plates overlapping as in other species of the genus. Between every two interambulacrals in vertical succession, there exists actinally a considerable membranous area in the middle, but abactinally this membrane is reduced to a minimum, and the plates

overlap one another even in the middle of transverse sutures, although

6 S. YOSHIWARA.

in a very slight degree. Close to the periproct again, the overlapping Just referred to is not recognizable.

Apical system (fig. 5) star-shaped, not projecting, the plates lying partly in apposition, partly separated by more or less wide membranous interspaces. The larger and peripherally situated apical plates with tubercles for pedicellariæ and secondary spines. Basals (bas.) wedged into interambulacram and bearing a short membranous tube with genital opening (g. 0.). Radials (rad.) separated from basals, usually with a periproctal (per.) between. Anals (an.) very small, elongated, closely packed together. Anus somewhat projecting.

Ambulacrum straight, narrower than interambulacrum (the ratio of breadths of the two being 28 to 41 at ambitus),

Ambulacral plate is composed, as determined near ambitus, of an aboral section and of a small, narrow, imperfectly calcified, adoral section situated at the middle of lower edge (fig. 6, am.). Closer ‘observation shows that the former again consists of three pieces apposed together in a transverse row. A pair of pores is situated on the outermost piece of the aboral,section. This pair of pores, together with two more pairs found side by side on the adoral section, forms a tolerably broad pori- ferous zone.—Towards the periproct the divisional lines between the pieces making up the aboral section become more and more difficult to distinguish and towards the periproct the adoral section apparently loses one of its pairs of pores, so that there now remain only two pairs of pores to each ambulacral (fig. 5, am... Finally the adoral section itself is no longer recognizable as such and henceforth the row is- continued to the periproct by a few, very imperfectly calcified plates, each with a single pair of pores. |

Peristomal ambulacrum consists of transverselv narrow plates, each with a single pair of pores. They are arranged in each peristomal ambu- lacrum in two regular rows reaching the mouth, between which are irregularly interposed a few other plates eonfined to the peristomal periphery. The pairs of pores on the two rows form a continuation of

the outermost series of those of the coronal ambulacrum. ‘Those of

ON TWO NEW SPECIES OF ASTHENOSOMA. 7

interposed peristomal ambulacral plates form one or two irregular series.

Tentacles of abactinal side, as also those situated near or within the peristome, are smaller, more pointed and poorer in calcareous networks, than the remainder of those of actinal side. They are also destitute of calcareous discs present in the latter. Calcareous networks of tentacles show special concentration along two symmetrically situated lines on either side.

For the distribution and arrangement of large and small tubercles on both ambulacrum and interambulacrum, the reader is referred to figs. 3 and 4.

Ambulacral arch of the perignathic girdle encloses a somewhat triangular space. The circumferential surface of the arch shows roughness at top for insertion of retractor muscles. On the other surface there is roughness along its inner edge for insertion of the muscle characteristic of the genus. Interambulacral ridge of the girdle possesses two slight prominences. Close observation shows at once that here the ridge is formed of one or two interambulacral plates derived from each of the two rows that compose an interambulacrum, and that each limb of the arch is formed by modification of a single ambulacral plate—a condition that reminds us of what occurs in the Cidaride. The sutures between all the plates composing the perignathic girdle remain distinct.

Spines perforated, of four kinds: 1) long poison-spines, which are smooth, cylindrical, tapering, of reddish color; some as long as 60 mm. or more; found scattered all over abactinal side; 2) stout hoof- capped spines (fig. 7) similar to those generally found in Phormosoma with shaft crenulated in upper part, found on abactinal side from a short distance within ambitus and extending to peristomal margin ; 3) small slender spines like poison-spines but more or less crenulated and covered with thicker membrane containing red pigment, occurring intermixed with the two foregoing kinds; 4) those found thickly

crowded in proximity of peristome, densely crenulated and slightly

8 S. YOSHIWARA.

curved, with the concavity facing the peristome.

Pedicellariz of two kinds: small slender-stemmed trifid ones and larger but short-stemmed cup-bearing ones. Both distributed all over coronal, periproctal, and peristomal plates.

Spheeridia large, 1 mm. in length, arranged in a single series closely inside the innermost series of tentacles, not only on actinal side but also on abactinal side up to one-fourth of the way from ambitus to periproct. Their membranous covering contains red pigment ; the club- shaped calcareous body has numerous canals longitudinally traversing the neck. These open mostly on the surface of neck, while only three of them pass into the head to open there.

Branchia with branches that are either simple and finger-shaped or lobose at end. Stome pentagonal. Jaws unclosed above with epiphyses. ‘Tooth keeled.

Amongst other points of structural differences, the present species may be readily distinguished from all other species of the genus by the presence of very long spines on the abactinal, and of hoof-capped spines

on the actinal side.

Asthenosoma Ijimai, nov. sp. (Figs. 8-12.)

The following description of this species is based on a single specimen which was purchased by Prof. Isıma from a Jögashima fisherman in a fresh state. It was stated that it came up sticking to the fishing net. The locality of its capture must have been not very far away from Misaki, but the exact depth is unknown, although we can safely assert that the particular kind of net used by that fisherman is never let duwn to a depth beyond 55 fathoms.

Test similar in shape and nature to that of A. longispinum, Yosh., but proportionally higher. Diameter 132 mm., height 40 mm. ; color as preserved in alcohol light yellow with dark brownish spots and irregular markings.

Plates very numerous. In a vertical row of interambulacral plates

ON TWO NEW SPECIES OF ASTHENOSOMA. 9

there are about 86 plates abactinally and about 26 plates actinally. ‘The number of ambulacral plates almost twice that of interambulacrals.

Apical system (fig 11) polygonal, projecting. Anus very prominent. Anal plates (an.) minute, of an elongated shape, few, not reaching anal margin. Periproctal plates (per.) with pedicellariæ and small spines. Basal plates (bas.) unclosed, leaving around the genital opening (g.0.) a narrow membranous tract (bas’.), containing numerous small calcareous pieces and networks and extending as far down as the 8th.—10th. plates along the median interambulacral line. Madreporic plate divided into 4 separate pieces of unequal size (mad.), the largest occupying the normal position. ‘This division of madreporic plate is probably merely an individual abnormality.

Ambulacrum straight, 20 mm. wide at ambitus. The arrangement of ambulacral plates both coronal and peristomal, as also that of the pairs of pores, essentially same as in the foregoing species.

Tentacles of abactinal side pointed, containing exceedingly minute calcareous pieces ina small quantity. In the proximity of ambitus, first the inner tentacles and soon also the outer tentacles begin to be provided with calcareous discs, as are all on actinal side except those on peristome. The latter are simply provided with calcareous network.

Tubercles of both ambulacral and interambulacral areas show marked difference on actinal and abactinal sides.

Primary tubercles of interambulacrum: these appear from the 23rd. plate (counting from periproct) in the proximity of ambitus on abactinal side, corresponding to the appearance of tentacles with discs. Down to the 33rd. plate they occur on alternate plates and form a single row running close to ambulacrum (in., fig. 9). From the 34th. they occur on every successive plate and form two rows down to the 42nd. plate. Plates 43rd. to 47th. have alternately two and three primary tubercles giving rise to five rows (in., fig. 10). Plates 48th. to 55th. with two primary tubercles each, forming four rows. Finally, plates 56th. to 62nd. with one primary tubercle each, forming two rows.—

Secondary tubercles of interambulacrum : abactinally, up to 10 in a

10 S. YOSHIWARA.

regular transverse row on each plate (in., fig. 9). Actinally, rather irregularly scattered between primary tubercles (in., fig. 10).

Primary tubercles of ambulacrum: these appear at about the same level as those of the interambulacrum, in a single interrapted row along the median ambulacral suture (am., fig. 9). On actinal side (am., fig. 10) they occur one to each plate but so as to form two regular rows on the inside of poriferous zone. ‘Towards the peristome, these rows become more or less interrupted.—Secondary tubercles as on interambulacral plate, only fewer.

Spines perforated, of four kinds: 1) poison-spines, which are smooth, pointed and with transverse bands of a brownish color; found all over the abactinal side, where they may be as long as 16mm., and also on the peripheral half of the actinal side, where they are mostly short and do not exceed 7mm. in length; 2) stout, slightly bent, cylindrical spines, truncated at free end and borne on all primary tubercles, consisting of crenulated shaft and of simply striated, short, terminal segment open at end (fig. 12) as long as 22 mm., 3) shorter spines, covering the main portion of the actinal side, straight, tapering, cylindrical or shghtly flattened, mostly smooth ; 4) short spines on the peristome and adjoining parts, club-shaped, curved, flattened, crenulated, with thick sheath of the soft part.

Pedicellariæ of two kinds: one large and long-headed, the other small, long-stemmed