SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS

VOL. 7

JS A \AhVJiVhK MEMBER OF SOCIETY WHO. BT HIS OBSEIt V ATJONS, UKJSKAKCHJ ANn EXPERIMENTS, PROCCRES KNO«'LEDliE FOR ME\ "— SM 11 II SON

(Publication 2920)

CITY OF WASHINGTON

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION

1927

Z^e £or5 (§aitimovt (preee

BALTIMORE, MD., D. S. A.

ADVERTISEMENT

The present series, entitled " Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collec- tions," is intended to embrace all the octavo publications of the Institution, except the Annual Report. Its scope is not limited, and the volumes thus far issued relate to nearly every branch of science. Among these various subjects zoology, bibliography, geology, mineralogy, anthropology, and astrophysics have predominated.

The Institution also publishes a quarto series entitled " Smith- sonian Contributions to Knowledge." It consists of memoirs based on extended original investigations, which have resulted in important additions to knowledge.

C. G. Abbot, Acting Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.

(iii)

CONTENTS

1. Explorations and Field-Work of the Smithsonian Insti-

tution IN 1925. April 8, 1926. 132 pp., 128 figs. (Publ. 2865.)

2. Theriot, I. Mexican mosses collected by Brother Arsene Brouard.

June 15. 1926. 29 pp., 14 figs. (Publ. 2867.)

3. Merriam, C. Hart. The classification and distribution of the

Pit River Indian tribes of California. December 31, 1926. 52 pp., 27 pis., I map. (Publ. 2874.)

4. Clayton, Henry Helm. Solar activity and long-period weather

changes. September 30, 1926. 62 pp., 13 figs. (Publ. 2875.)

5. Abbot, C. G. The distribution of energy over the sun's disk.

October 12, 1926. 12 pp., i pi., i fig. (Publ. 2876.)

6. Thorington, J. Monroe, M. D. The Lyell and Freshfield glaciers,

Canadian Rocky Mountains, 1926. February 5, 1927. 8 pp., 12 pis. (Publ. 291 1.)

7. Explorations and Field-Work of the Smithsonian Insti-

tution IN 1926. April 21, 1927. 259 pp., 247 figs. (Publ. 2912.)

8. Standley, Paul C. The flora of Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

May 20, 1927. 32 pp. (Publ. 2914.)

(v)

SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS

VOLUME 78. NUMBER 1

EXPLORATIONS AND FIELD-WORK OF THE

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION

IN 1925

(Publication 2865)

CITY OF WASHINGTON

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION

1926

c £or6 Q^afttmorc (prceo

BALTIMORE. MD.. U. S. A.

CONTENTS

PAGE

Introduction i

Geological Explorations in the Canadian Rockies (Dr. Charles D. Walcott) i

Field-Work in Structural Geology in Tennessee (Dr. R. S. Bassler ) 9

Geological Field-Work in Central New York (Mr. Erwin R. Pohl) 13

Geological Field-Work in Europe (Dr. Charles E. Resser) 16

Collecting Fossil Footprmts in Arizona (Mr. Charles W. Gilmore) 20

Investigation of Glacial Deposits near Des Moines, Iowa (Dr. James W.

Gidley ) 23

Investigation of Evidences of Early Man at Melbourne and Vero, Florida

( Dr. James W. Gidley ) 23

Exploration of a Pleistocene Spring-deposit in Oklajionia (Dr. James W.

Gidley) 27

Field-Work in Astrophysics (Dr. Charles G. Abbot) 28

Biological Explorations in Western China (Rev. David C. Graham ) 31

Exploration of Haitian Caves (Dr. Gerrit S. Miller, Jr. ) 36

Marine Invertebrate Studies at the Tortugas (Dr. Waldo L. Schmitt) 40

Study of the Crustaceans of South America (Dr. Waldo L. Schmitt) 40

Experiments in Cerion-breeding at the Tortugas (Dr. Paul Bartsch) 44

Botanical Expedition to Brazil (Mrs. Agnes Chase ) 48

Botanical Investigations at European Museums (Mr. E. P. Killip) 53

Anthropological Studies in Southern Asia, Java, Australia, and South

Africa (Dr. Ales Hrdlicka) 59

Archeological Investigations at Pueblo Bonito and Puel)lo Del Arroyo,

New Mexico (Mr. Neil M. Judd ) 80

Archeological and Anthropometrical Work in Missi sippi (Mr. Henry B.

Collins) 89

Archeological Studies of the Wupatki National Monument (Dr. J. Walter

Fewkes) 96

Researches on the Archeology of Southern California (Mr. J. P.

Harrington) 106

Studies of the Fox and Ojibwa Indians (Dr. Truman Michelson) in

Ethnological Researches among the Iroquois and Chippewa (Mr. J. N. B.

Hewitt) 1 14

Ethnological Work among the Osage of Oklahoma ( Mr. Francis La

Flesche) 117

Studies of Indian Music among the Menominee of Wisconsin (Miss

Frances Densmore) 119

Investigation of Shell and Sand Mounds on Pinellas Peninsula, Florida

(Air. David I. Bushnell, Jr.) 125

EXPLORATIONS AND FIELD-WORK OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION IN 1925

INTRODUCTION

The functions of the Smithsonian Institution as stipulated by the will of the founder, James Smithson, are " the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men." In its endeavor to increase the sum of human knowledge, the Institution conducts researches and explora- tions, the latter particularly in regions of the earth which have not yet been thoroughly investigated. As the founder's will did not discriminate in favor of any particular branch of science, the Institu- tion endeavors to be partial to none, and its activities have covered geology, biology, and anthropology, with all of their various subdi- visions ; astrophysics, aeronautics, physics, and chemistry. The pres- ent pamphlet is intended to present in brief form, illustrated, the purpose and results of the expeditions in the field during 1925. The very limited income of the Institution from its private endow- ment does not permit of a comprehensive, coordinated program of exploration, and it therefore takes whatever opportunity offers to cooperate with other agencies in sending out field expeditions. The accounts, although written in the third person, are prepared for the most part by the explorers themselves, and the pictures are taken by them in the field.

GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATIONS IN THE CANADIAN ROCKIES

In continuation of geological field-work in the Canadian Rockies, Secretary Charles D. Walcott left Lake Louise Station, Alberta, on the Canadian Pacific Railway on July 9 with a camp outfit and pack horses. The field season was even more unfavorable than that of 1924. Smoke from extensive forest fires west and north of the mountain area north and east of Lake Louise interfered with photography during July and the first lialf of August. An eddy, or dead area in the atmosphere, hung over the mountains for several weeks, and then, after a severe gale of several days' duration, snow began falling on August 21, blanketing the canyon valleys with a depth of from 12 to 16 inches (fig. 9) and the mountain slopes with

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 78, No. 1

SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 78

SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I925

Fig. 4. Close up view of Tilted Mountain Cirque showing the limestones of the Middle Cambrian Eldon formation thrust against the Devonian lime- stones at the head of the Cirque. The locality is 8.5 miles (13.7 km.) in an air line northeast of Lake Louise Station on the Canadian Pacific Railway. (C. D. Walcott, 1925.)

Fig. 5. Looking over Ptarmigan Lake and Bow Valley to the Mt. Victoria massif, 12 miles (19.3 km.) southwest of Ptarmigan Lake. The mountains in the vicinity of Lake Louise are finely shown in this view, also the rounded hills and slopes of Pre-Cambrian rocks on the north side of Bow Valley. The view was taken from south side of Skoki Pass on the southeast slope of Fossil Miountain at 8,000 feet (2,438.4 m.) elevation and 8 miles (129 km.) in an air line northeast of Lake Louise Station on the Canadian Pacific Railway, Alberta, Canada. (C. D. Walcott, 1925.)

iMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 78

Fig. 6. South side of Skoki Mountain from a point 8.5 miles (13.7 km.) in an air line northeast of Lake Louise Station on the Canadian Pacific Railway, Alberta, Canada.

The mountain is formed of fossiliferous Middle Devonian limestones to aliout half-way down the slope on the right side, where the subjacent Silu- rian and Lower Ordovician, Sarbach formation, is exposed. (C D. Walcott, 19^5.)

Fk;. /.—Mounts ]\lcBride and Douglas reflected in the Red Deer River at a point 14 miles (22.5 km. ) in an air line northeast of Lake Louise Station on the Canadian Pacific Railway, Alberta, Canada. (Marv Vaux Walcott, 1925.)

NO. I

SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I925

Fig. 8. A fine summer day in camp at south base of Skoki Mountain on afternoon of August 21, 1925 (see figure 9).

Skoki Mountain camp site is 9 miles u4-5 Km-) in an air line northeast of Lake Louise Station on the Canadian Pacific Railway, Alberta, Canada. (C. D. Walcott, 1925.)

Fig. 9. Skoki camp on morning of August 22 (see figure 8).

SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS

VOL. yi

a gradually increasing depth up to 30 inches on the passes just above timber line.

Snow squalls followed nearly every afternoon until August 30, when camp was moved from between Fossil and Skoki Mountains to below the pass at the head of Johnston Creek Canyon, Snow came again on September 5. 9, and 18. Secretary and Mrs. Walcott re- turned to Lake Louise Station, packed their collections and left for \\'ashington on September 21, which was the most beautiful day of

I'll,, 10. Looking- south down Johnston Canyon Iruni divide at its head, which is formed of Hmestones of the Ordovician Sarhach formation, in which the canyon has been largely eroded. See figure 2. (Mary Vaux Walcott. 1925.)

the season. Only eight camps were made while on the trail. It was more through good fortune than favorable conditions that a fine series of fossils from critical horizons in the great lower Paleozoic section north of Bow Valley was discovered and collected. These fossils increase our knowledge of the history and life of the Cor- dilleran Sea of this time and afford the data for comparison with hfe and conditions in the Appalachian Trough and the great upper Mississippi emixiyment of Upper Cambrian time.

In the interval between the snow storms of September 5 and 9 several new fossil zones w^ere found in the Lower Ordovician rocks

NO. I SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I925 7

of the Johnston- Wild Flower Canyon Pass section, and also in the Upper Cambrian west of Badger Pass. The latter find enabled Dr. Walcott to identify the Arctomys formation of the Glacier Lake section and to clear up the uncertainty as to the position of the strata hitherto referred to the lower portion of the Bosworth formation.

Fig.

I. Pcdicularis contorta Benth. Alpine lousewort. (Mary Vaux Walcott, iy-'5.)

Mrs. Walcott secured a few water-color sketches of wild flowers at the camp in the open area of the upper Ptarmigan Canyon, but the storm of August 21 killed all but a few hardy asters and paint-brushes.

Mountain sheep were seen on the mountains about the head of Johnston Creek, but the rain and snow storms made it difficult to secure fine specimens desired for a group in the National Museum. One fairly good ram and a badly damaged ewe were secured, as

Fig. 12. Saitssurca dcnsa (Hooker) Rydherg. (Mary Vaux Walcott, 1925.)

I'Ki. 1,^. Liiiiiarci aiiicricana I'"orI)es. Twiii-flower. (Mary Vaux Walcott, 1925.)

NO. I SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I925 9

well as a mule deer, which, when shot, rushed down the Canyon side and broke its fine horns in landing upon a mass of broken rock.

This year probably completes the field-work in the Canadian Rockies. A few of the problems encountered have been cleared up in the past nine years, but many remain to be studied by young, well- trained men with strong hearts, vigorous muscles, and the high pur- pose of the research student seeking to discover the truth regarding the development of the North American Continent and of the life of the waters in which the miles in thickness of sands, clay, and limey muds accumulated during a period of several million years of lower Paleozoic time.

Mrs. Walcott has sketched over 350 species of wild flowers during the past 20 seasons, and she and Dr. Walcott now wish to work in the mountains and valleys of southern Nevada and adjoining areas of California, where climatic and physical conditions and life, both animal and vegetable, are in strong contrast with those of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, but where the problems in which Dr. Walcott is interested in connection with the Cambrian forma- tions of the Cordilleran area are essentially of the same order.

Acknozvledgmcnts . Commissioner J. B. Harkin and the members of the Canadian National Parks Service gave their hearty coopera- tion. The effective assistance of the officers and employees of the Canadian Pacific Railway permitted a saving of time and conserva- tion of energy, and grants from the O. C. Marsh and Joseph Henry endowment funds of the National Academy of Sciences were of great assistance. To all, sincere thanks are returned and apprecia- tion is expressed for the cooperation that has been given over a period of years to make Dr. Walcott's work more successful than it would otherwise have been.

FIELD-WORK IN STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY IN TENNESSEE

During August and a part of September, 1925, Dr. R. S. Bassler, curator of paleontology, U. S. National Museum, continued his studies in the Central Basin and Highland Rim areas of Tennessee in cooperation, as in previous years, with the Tennessee Geological Survey. For several seasons past, he has been engaged in working out the detailed stratigraphy of these two physiographic provinces, in mapping certain areas of particular scientific and economic inter- est and in collecting the faunas of the various Paleozoic formations outcropping in this part of the state. By 1925, sufficient geologic knowledge had been accumulated to make possible the determina-

SMITHSONIAN M ISCFLLANKOT'S COLLECTIONS VOL. 78

Fig. 14. Outcrop of New Providence shale followed unconformably by Fort Payne chert, illustrating submarine erosion. Eagle Creek, northeast of Livingston, Tennessee. (Photograph by Bassler.)

Fig. I-

i\ne chert witli i.\cTl\ini; Warsaw fi>rniation, Tullahonia, Tennessee. (Piiotograph by Bassler.)

NO. I SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I925 II

tion of interesting structural features indicating discordant relations and areal restrictions in rock formations which had hitherto been thought to be essentially horizontal, widespread, and conformable with each other.

At various times during the Paleozoic era, the area now termed the Central Basin was uplifted above the sea as a low dome the Nashville Dome, as it is generally known the rocks sloping gently away on all sides. At times this dome was submerged partially or entirely, the deposits remaining of those then formed showing the extent of such submergences. At other times, the sea invaded the area only in bay-like indentations in which rocks of various interesting types were laid down. The resulting rock deposits hold the story of these various invasions of the Nashville Dome, but the strata, mainly limestone and shale, are so much alike that detailed preliminary studies had to be undertaken before the formations and their extent could be satisfactorily discriminated and mapped. From such studies in previous seasons it was determined, for ex- ample, that the Bigby limestone of Middle Ordovician age, the source of much of the Tennessee brown phosphate, was deposited in an arm of the sea which covered only the southwestern and western parts of the Nashville Dome. The succeeding massive Cannon limestone was developed, on the contrary, in a broad embayment occupying the eastern two-thirds of the dome, in which it varies in thickness from an inch or two along the ancient western shore line to several hundred feet along the eastern side of the basin. The Early Silurian, Richmond formation, also proved to have been formed in similar but much narrower bays entering the dome on the northern, western, and southern sides. The relative narrow- ness of these embayments as contrasted with the preceding Bigby and Cannon limestone bays indicates decided warping or wrinkling of the surface during the transition from the Ordovician to the Silurian. These restricted Richmond areas are also notable for their iron ores and marble deposits. The later Silurian, Devonian, and Early Mississippian formations, in many cases, were deposited in similarly restricted areas.

The occurrence and thickness of an Early Mississippian forma- tion accumulated in one of these ancient narrow bays is illustrated in figure 14. showing the New Providence shale, a celebrated crinoid- bearing formation. Here, however, another structural feature is slaown in that the horizontal strata of the New Providence shale are obliquely cut across by rocks of the overlying formation of

12 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 7^

Fig. i6. Chattanooga black shale with channel occupied by Fort Payne chert, east of Woodbury, Tennessee. (Photograph by Bassler. )

Fig. I/.- Eastern Highland Rim viewed from top of Cuml^erland Plateau near Sewanee, Tennessee. (Photograph by Bassler.)

NO. I SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I925 I3

Fort Payne chert. The edges of the lower formation are clean cut and show no signs of weathered products due to subaerial de- composition, so that this seems a true case of submarine erosion.

Viewed in most exposures, the Fort Payne chert of Keokuk age appears to be conformable with the overlying Warsaw limestone but that there was an actual time break, locally indicated by an angular unconformity, is shown in figure 15. Here the lower for- mation has been tilted at a slight angle and the edges of the strata worn oft' before the rocks of the newer formation were laid down upon it. A still different structural type is illustrated in figure 16, which shows the Fort Payne chert resting directly on the Early Mississippian Chattanooga black shale, the unconformity between the two being recorded elsewhere by 500 feet or more of shales and limestones included in the Ridgetop and New Providence forma- tions which were absent at this place. The particular interest of this exposure is that the Chattanooga shale developed a sharply defined channel in its top, either through fracturing or erosion, in which the Fort Payne chert was deposited normally. The structure of the Eastern Highland Rim near its junction with the Cumberland Plateau was also' studied. The Highland Rim forms a rolling up- land averaging 1,200 feet in altitude and the Cumberland Plateau, another marked upland area, 700 feet higher. In this part of the State, the Highland Rim is traversed as shown in figure 17, by low ridges which, as a rule, are due to structural features in the underlying formations. These ridges, in most cases, are capped by hard sandstone and indicate areas of slightly downfolded strata where the general level of erosion has not proceeded far enough to entirely remove the resistant rock.

Tennessee is uniquely situated for the study of stratigraphic geology, and the State has long been classic ground. Starting with the Blue Ridge system on the east and extending westward to the Mississippi flood plain, it comprises many physiographic provinces with the underlying strata embracing almost all the divisions of the geologic column. Most of these strata are highly fossiliferous and perhaps nowhere else can the development of life be studied to better advantage.

GEOLOGICAL FIELD-WORK IN CENTRAL NEW YORK

The division of paleontology of the U. S. National Museum contains great collections of Devonian fossils from the classic New York areas, obtained years ago when the present methods of record-

14

SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 78

ing very exact data as to precise horizon and locality were not observed. To make these collections of scientific value, such detailed information must be supplied. Towards this end, Erwin R. Pohl, of the division, spent several weeks in the summer of 1925 at the noted section along Kashong Creek near Bellona, New York, where the shales and limestone formations of the Middle Devonian rang- ing from the Marcellus at the base of the Hamilton through the Ludlowville, the Tichenor and Moscow divisions and passing into the overlying Tully limestone and Genesee black shale of Upper Devonian age, are well developed in splendid outcrops. jVIost of these formations abound in fossils and, as a result of the trip, half

Fig. 18. Contact Ijetwoen Tichenor limestone (T) and Moscow shale, Kashong Creek, Xew York. (Photograph by Pohl.)

a ton of carefully selected material was obtained. Photographs of these formations, illustrating the stratigraphy and the opportu- nities for collecting, are shown herewith (figs. 18 and 19).

The Kashong Creek section starts at the shore of Seneca Lake and outcrops in the steep winding banks of the creek for more than three miles upstream to Bellona, 300 feet above the level of the lake. At several intervals the harder sandstone and limestone layers form waterfalls of some beauty. Except in the stream gorge, the region is very heavily wooded so that the collector is confined to the creek bed to penetrate the country. The section is not continuous and as the strata are folded in broad undulations and many of the beds have a lithologic similarity, correlation of the rock is sometimes quite difficult.

SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I925

15

Fig. 19.— First falls in Kashong Creek, New York, showing Tully limestone (T) overlying Moscow shale. (Photograph by Pohl. )

Fig. 20.— Genesee black shale overlying the Tully limestone (1). Kashong Creek, New York. (Photograph by Pohl.)

l6 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 78

The black shales of the Ludlowville division of the Hamilton were found to contain often myriads of small brachiopods and pelecypods. The Tichenor limestone forming the base of the Hamil- ton is also extremely fossiliferous while the Moscow shales above, abounding in fossils, can be distinguished by their slightly grayer color. Then comes a gap in sedimentation, for the Tully limestone, forming the base of the Upper Devonian, is separated from the underlying Moscow shale by an unconformity. The very charac- teristic blocky Genesee shales follow the Tully limestone as shown in figure 20.

Abundant collections were made in all the fossiliferous zones and with their help, it has been found possible to accurately place in this section most of the many fossils in the ]\Iuseum's series previously obtained from this area.

GEOLOGICAL FIELD-WORK IN EUROPE

Dr. Charles E. Resser, associate curator of paleontology, U. S. National Museum and Dr. E. O. Ulrich, associate in paleontology, were members of the Smithsonian-Princeton expedition to Europe during the summer of 1925 for the purpose of studying the more important outcrops of the lower Paleozoic beds. The other mem- bers of the party were Prof. R. M. Field and Mr. R. M. Fulle of Princeton University and Mr. R. J. Beede of Williams College. Prof. Field kindly offered the use of his automobile, which made it possible to get about readily and to reach many places off the usual travel routes. The route followed by the party covered more than 7,500 miles by automobile alone, through central England, Wales, and the extreme north coast of Scotland, the Scandinavian countries, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Switzerland, and France.

Work was begun in Shropshire, where Mr. Edgar Sterling Cob- bold of Church Stretton conducted the party to the various localities at which he has done much valuable geological work. A few days later he was again the guide to the famous Stiper Stones region on the west side of the Longmynds. Some time was spent also in studying the sections along the Onny River, in company with Air. B. B. Bancroft. In Wales, Prof. T. C. Nicholas of Cambridge and Prof. O. T. Jones of Manchester guided the party about the Harlech Dome, on St. Tudwals Peninsula and in Central Wales. At Durness, on the extreme northwest coast of Scotland, a large series

SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I

925

17

of limestone beds were next visited which have been of special interest for many years becanse their contained faunas are American rather than European.

Tlie automobile was then transported across the North Sea to Oslo, whence the party was guided by Prof. Olaf Holtedahl to the famous localities on Christiania Bay. After the very brief stay in Norway, the party proceeded to Vanersborg, Sweden, where it was met by Dr. A. H. Westergaard, detailed by the Swedish Geological Survey to be the guide in that country. Several weeks were spent studying the outcrops in the hills of the region about Lake Vanern

Fig. 21. Professors O. 1. Jmik.v and T. C. Nicholas discussing the geology along the Rhaj-der River in Wales, with Dr. Ulrich. (Photograph by Resser.)

and to the south in the ancient alum quarries of Andrarum. The whole of southern Sweden has been heavily glaciated, but prior to the coming of the ice it was eroded down to the fairly flat granite floor. At a few places some of the soft, black, flat-lying Cambrian shales with a little Ordovician limestone have been preserved in low, lava^capped hills. Lenses of black, ill-smelling limestone, usu- ally highly fossiliferous, occur in the black shales. Many hundreds of years ago quarries were begim here for the sake of this lime. Prior to 1800 wood was used in its burning but since that date the shale itself has been used, for it contains so much carbonaceous matter and sulphur that it serves the purpose well.

There were no particular objectives between Sweden and the Bohemian Basin near Prague, and therefore the intervening regions

i8

SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS

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NO. I SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I925 19

were traversed rapidly. At Prague the geologists again offered every courtesy, and Dr. Jan Koliha of the famous Barrandeum Museum and Dr. Radim Kettner of the Geological Survey served as efficient guides to Barrande's classic sections. In the Museum one can see the first trilobite ever described, just lOO years ago. From Czechoslovakia the journey led to Zurich, where Dr. Ulrich remained. The rest of the party continued across the Jura Mountains and the Central Massif of France to Les Eyzies in the Dordogne country. Several days were spent in investigating the abris and caves in which remains of fossil man are preserved.

Fig. 24. Crossing the ferry on the Beraun river near Skrej, Czecho- slovakia. Dr. R. Kettner is just about to step onto the ferry. (Photograph by Resser.)

As it was necessary for the Princeton members to return at the end of August, the party was finally disbanded at Paris and Prof. Field returned with the automobile to Liverpool. Dr. Resser then proceeded to Frank furt-am-Main, in Germany, to visit Dr. and Mrs. Rudolf Richter who have been active workers in paleontology during the last ten years, producing much excellent work.

From Frankfurt he then returned to Copenhagen and in com- pany with Dr. Christian Poulsen of the Mineralogical Museum, made a visit to the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea. The island consists of a granitic mass with younger and softer rocks on the southern margin, the whole having been very heavily glaciated.

Several hundred pounds of selected fossils were collected and sent to the National Museum, a number of valuable gifts were secured, and exchanges were arranged.

20 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 78

COLLECTING FOSSIL FOOTPRINTS IN ARIZONA

Mr. Charles W. Gilmore, curator of the division of vertebrate paleontology, U. S. National Museum, by arrangement with the National Park Service and through the generosity of some of its friends, was enabled to visit the Grand Canyon for the purpose of making a collection of fossil footprints, and at the same time to prepare a permanent exhibit of these footprints i)i situ by the side of the famous Hermit Trail. Both of these undertakings were suc- cessfully carried out.

A series of slabs, some 1,700 pounds in weight, carrying good examples of the various kinds of imprints occurring there, were collected and shipped to the Museum. The tracks occur in the Coconino sandstone in Hermit Basin, on the trail down to Her- mit Camp and from 900 to 1,080 feet below the rim of the Can- yon. Their excellent preservation and variety of kind, coupled with their great antiquity, make this collection of more than usual interest. Preliminary study of the tracks has demonstrated that they represent not only a new Ichnite fauna, but probably the best preserved and most extensive series of Permian footprints known anywhere in the world.

It was found that the natural conditions were most favorable for the preparation of an exhibit of fossil tracks in situ. The rather steep slope of the sandstone on whose surfaces the tracks are im- pressed stands at an inclination of 30° facing toward the Hermit trail, over which in the course of the year hundreds of tourists travel on mule back in making their pilgrimage to the bottom of the Grand Canyon. The upper layers of the sandstone cleared off in large sheets, thus uncovering whatever tracks and trails there were to be found beneath. The work of preparing this exhibit consisted, therefore, of removing the overburden of loose dirt and broken rock, then quarrying off the loose upper laminae until a solid and continuous face covered with footprints was reached. This was done, and a smooth surface 8 feet wide and 25 feet long was carefully uncovered as shown in figure 25.

At the side of the slab leading up from the trail, a series of stone steps was laid in order to facilitate examination by those interested in the footprints covering its surface. Although this slab constituted the main exhibit, other large surfaces were similarly uncovered, so that in all there are several hundred square feet of rock surface showing imprints of feet, thus forming a permanent exhibit of the various tracks and trails to be found here.

NO. I SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I925 21

The great antiquity of these footprints is clearly demonstrated at this locaHty, for it is evident that since the day when those ani- mals impressed their feet in what at that time was moist sand, more than I, coo feet of rock-making materials were piled up in successive

Fig. 25. Slab of fossil footprints hi situ on the Hermit Trail, Grand Canyon National Park. (Photograph by Gilmore.)

strata above them and this does not take into account many hundreds of feet more that have been eroded off the present top of the canyon wall.

The great length of time necessary for the cutting away or erosion of the rock to form the deep canyon and the even longer time necessary for the original deposition of this great vertical mass of

Fig. 26. Baroficsia eakini, new species of fossil footprints. Crossed diagonally by track of Laoporus nobeli Lull.

NO. I SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I925 23

Stone when translated into terms of years, if that were ix)ssible, would be so stupendous as to be almost beyond human compre- hension.

This unique exhibit gives a very definite impression of the great antiquity of the animal life that made these tracks, and it is hoped that as an example it will stimulate the preparation and preservation of other natural phenomena in our government controlled parks, monuments, and reservations.

INVESTIGATION OF GLACIAL DEPOSITS NEAR DES MOINES, IOWA

In April, 1925, Dr. James W. Gidley, assistant curator, division of fossil vertebrates, U. S. National Museum, was detailed under the auspices of the Bureau of American Ethnology to investigate an alleged discovery of artifacts at Ad'el, Iowa. At Des Moines, Dr. Gidley was joined by Dr. James H. Lees, assistant state geologist of Iowa, who aided in the investigation at Adel.

After a study of the locality, the general conclusion reached by Dr. Lees and Dr. Gidley was that although the artifacts (if such they are) were found at a level of 24 feet below the original surface and much below the level of Wisconsin (Upper Pleisto- cene) drift deposits abundantly exposed at this locality, the beds in which they were originally deposited are post- Wisconsin in age and represent a more recently filled stream channel formed perhaps by the abundant glacial waters coming from the last retreating glacial ice sheet. As the artifacts were found in a bed of coarse sand and gravel near the bottom of this ancient stream-channel fill, however, the time of their burial must have been several thou- sand years ago.

INVESTIGATION OF EVIDENCES OF EARLY MAN AT MELBOURNE AND VERO, FLORIDA

The discovery at Vero, Florida, a few years ago of hmnan remains associated with those of an extinct fauna aroused considerable in- terest at the time, and since the first publication of the occurrence by Dr. E. H. Sellards in 1916, there has been much discussion as to the age of these remains and the manner of their occurrence. Several prominent men of science have expressed widely divergent opinions both as to the age of the deposit in which the human bones were found and as to their normal association with the extinct

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animal bones with which they were foimd. Alore recently a dis- covery, similar to that at Vero, was made near Melbourne, about 40 miles north of that place. The importance of this new discovery was recognized, and accordingly Dr. Gidley, under the auspices of the Bureau of American Ethnology, was detailed to ^Melbourne, where with the aid of Air. C. P. Singleton, a local amateur collec- tor and the first discoverer of fossil bones in that vicinity, a pre- liminary investigation was made.

For this investigation. Dr. Gidley left Washington, December 15. 1924, and returned January 4, 1925. This trip resulted in locating

Fig. 27. North bank of drainage canal about three miles west of Mel- bourne, Florida. Showina: exposures of No. 2 and No. 3 beds and top of No. I bed. (Photograph by Gidley.)

several good prospects and in procuring by gift from Air. Single- ton, a fine specimen of the Florida mastodon which included a nearly complete skull and lower jaws. While in Melbourne, Dr. Gidley met Prof. F. B. Loomis of Amherst College, who also had come there to look over these fossil deposits. There followed the formu- lation of a tentative plan, afterwards approved by the authorities of Amherst College and the Smithsonian Institution, for a joint field expedition to more thoroughly explore the localities in the vicinity of Melbourne and to re-examine the fossil beds at Vero. This joint expedition, which left Washington on June 21 and re- turned August 7. met with gratifying success in the way of adding considerable new evidence to be considered in working out the problem of early man in Florida.

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On studying the fossil-bearing deposits at both localities, it was found that the general conditions of deposition in the vicinity of Melbourne were almost identical with those at Vero, so there was no difficulty in recognizing over a wide area at Melbourne the three principal geologic horizons designated by Sellards at Vero as Nos. I, 2, and 3. This made the correlation of the beds of the two localities comparatively easy. It was found that at both lo- calities, all the fossil bones taken from Sellards " No. 2 " layer were primarily deposited and were definitely of Pleistocene age. Many of the bones of the lower part of No. 3 were also of this age but were often mixed with bones of more modern species. Also that " No. 3 '' layer usually lies unconformably upon the somewhat unevenly eroded surface of " No. 2." " No. 3 " layer throughout contained numerous evidences of man, apparently of no great an- tiquity, while no remains of this character were found in the lower portion at least of " No. 2." However, at Melbourne there were found, at three relatively widely separated areas, human bones or artifacts associated with undisturbed, and not redeposited, fossil bones of the Pleistocene fauna. These finds were all near the top of " No. 2 " level, just below the contact plane. As no human re- mains or artifacts were found below the top layer of " No. 2," it is assumed that man arrived in Florida about the close of the time marked by the finished deposition of " No. 2 " or during the erosian interval between it and " No. 3," and that he seems to have found there a late survival of the Pleistocene fauna, certain species of which may have persisted in the south later than did their relatives in the north country. To verify these conclusions, a more extensive and carefully worked out geologic investigation of both localities should be made, especially along the contact plane between beds " Nos. 2 and 3."

This expedition also spent some time in exploring certain of the ancient Indian shell mounds and burial places of the vicinity. From these a good collection of well-preserved skulls and skeletons were obtained. There are many of these ancient Indian mounds in this part of Florida, but unfortunately the present white inhabitants of the region are digging them up as fast as located in the hope of finding buried treasures. Thus is being destroyed what historic and scientific value these mounds have for the archeologist. At the present rate it will be only a few years until these burial places of an interesting ancient people will almost wholly vanish as have the people who made them.

NO. I SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I925 T.'J

EXPLORATION OF A PLEISTOCENE SPRING-DEPOSIT IN OKLAHOMA

In October, Dr. Gidley was detailed under the auspices of the Bureau of American Ethnology to examine a spring deposit in southwestern Oklahoma. This spring is situated at the base of Long Horn Mountain, on its southwesterly slope. It is about 14 miles south of Mountain View, and about 40 miles northwest of Fort Sill, Oklahoma.

The fossil bones had been discovered here in August by an Indian, Mr. Carl J. Reid Dussome. while cleaning out the spring

Fig. 30. Long Horn Spring, about 14 miles south of Mountain \'ie\v, Oklahoma, on ranch owned by Miss Reid Dussome, great granddaughter of Satanta, a former chief of the Kiowa Indians. Showing excavation above spring where a "banner" stone was found associated with remains of Pleis- tocene animals. (Photograph by Gidley.)

preparatory to enclosing it with concrete in order to get a better and cleaner flow of water for domestic purjx)ses. Thus, an area of about 150 square feet was exposed to the bottom of the deposit which hera is only 6 or 7 feet in depth. Additional excava- tions were made under the direction of Dr. Gidley in October, which added about 300 square feet to the area explored. The fossil bones were confined entirely to the lower 18 inches of the stratum which consists mostly of a black, sticky mud, or clay. The general results of this exploration seem to be important, although not a great amount of material was obtained. A small collection of Pleis- tocene fossils were procured, part being donated by Mr. Reid and

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part collected by Dr. Gidley. ]\Iost important was the finding of a broken bannerstone, near the bottom of the fossil bone-bearing layer and in apparently normal immediate association with remains of an extinct horse, while remains of the mammoth, mastodon, and mylodon were recovered at the same level a few feet away. The shallowness of the fossil bone layer, the general character and dis- position of the deposits, the little altered condition of the fossil bones and the aspect of the immediate surroundings, all suggest, however, a not remote antiquity for the origin of this material, and again raises the question of whether or not a remnant of the American Pleistocene fauna may not have survived to a much later date in the southern border of the United States than has hitherto been supposed.

FIELD-WORK IN ASTROPHYSICS

With the unanimous endorsement of the National Academy of Sciences, the Chiefs of the United States and British Weather Ser- vices, and of several other eminent meteorologists, the Congress of the United States increased its appropriation for the Astrophysical Observatory sufficiently to enable the Smithsonian Institution to continue the solar radiation station at Montezuma, Chile, for the fiscal year 1926. Hitherto this station has been carried in part by the in- come of the Hodgkins fund of the Smithsonian Institution and in part by the grants of Mr. John A. Roebling, who has now discon- tinued his support, after expending a very large sum on this and related researches.

The Smithsonian has therefore been able to continue daily obser- vations of the variation of the sun at two exceptionally cloudless desert stations. Daily telegrams have been received within 24 hours after the observations, which indicate the independent results of the two observatories. This information has been communicated immediately to Mr. H. H. Clayton, who has continued liis studies of the relations of solar variation to weather. As a test of his results, he has sent daily solar forecasts to the Institution estimating the temperature of New York City 3, 4, and 5 days in advance. He has also sent (3 days before their commencements) forecasts of tem- perature departures at New York for each week and month.

These results will not be made public as forecasts. They are merely to enable the Smithsonian Institution to estimate Mr. Clayton's suc- cess in these experiments. However, the results hitherto show very

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FiG. 31. Cottage t(ir observers at the new Table Mountain, California, station of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

Fig. 32. Concrete observing tunnel at Table Mountain, California. 3

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certainly real prevision on Mr. Clayton's part, and a gradual increase in the accuracy of his forecasts. That the forecasts are not even more close to the event than they are is due to several causes, not least of vi^hich is the imperfect character of the Smithsonian solar radiation observations.

Our tvi^o stations in Arizona and Chile differed on the daily average by about 0.5 per cent during the past two years. Clayton's researches seem to demand a higher degree of accuracy than this. It can only be

Fig. ;;^3. Mt. North Baldy from the road to the Table Mountain observing station.

attained by small improvements in various parts of the observations, bv the improvement, if possible, of the existing stations, and by add- ing new stations of the highest merit.

All three of these improvements are in progress. A complete criti- cal revision of methods of observation and reduction of solar radia- tion observations is being made. Through Mr. Roebling's generosity, the station at Harqua Hala, Arizona, is being removed to Table Mountain, California, 2,000 feet higher. A year's observations at Table Mountain prove that the sky conditions there will be decidedly better and the living conditions for observers much more comfortable.

Mr. Moore, the field director, has worked hard and successfully to make the transfer to Table Mountain which involved buildings.

NO. I SMITHSONIAN EXPLORATIONS, I925 31

road, water and sewer arrangements, etc.