A, | vorary

>, Bs in? 7 sf Museum of © ative Zoology Harvard Universily

l ,, HARVARD UNIVERSITY / A\!.

1, en iG pas \aest ihe V. ") LIBRARY

OF THE

DEPARTMENT OF MOLLUSKS IN THE j

MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY

Gift of:

RICHARD |. JOHNSON

RICHARD 1, JOHNSON

HARVARD UNIVERSITY

LIBRARY

OF THE

DEPARTMENT OF MOLLUSKS

IN THE Museum of Comparative Zoology, Gift of:

RICHARD I, JOHNSON; Decembér 1968"

RICHARD |, JOHNSON

CONCHOLOGIA ICONICA:

OR,

ILLUSTRATIONS

OF THE

SHELLS OF MOLLUSCOUS ANIMALS.

OO Or

WOE, ONE CONTAINING MONOGRAPHS OF THE GENERA TEREBRATULA. LINGULA. VITRINA. RYNCHONELLA. CYMBIUM. SIMPULOPSIS. CRANIA. CYCLOSTOMA. PHASTIANELLA. ORBICULA. CYCLOPHORUS. TROCHUS. LEPTOPOMA. BY

LOVELL AUGUSTUS REEVE, F.L.S., F.G.S.,

CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY OF WUETEMBERG, OF THE LYCEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY OF NEW YORK, AND OF THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA.

““Thy cupboard serves the world ; the meat is set, Where all may reach: no beast but knows his feed. Birds teach us hawking: fishes have their net ; The great prey on the less; they, on some weed.” George Herbert.

LONDON : LOVELL REEVE & CO., HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN.

1862.

MONOGRAPH

OF THE GENUS

een Ho RAL EO axe

“* Now are our brows bound with victorious wreaths, Our bruised arms hung up for monuments.” Shakspeare.

ANY je Whee

TEREBRATULA.

Puate I,

Genus TEREBRATULA, Lhwyd.

Testa inequivalvis, equilateralis, globosa vel ovata, interdum depressiuscula, nunc levigata, nunc radiatim striata aut costata, semper punctata, valvd supernd ventralt, tumido-converd, posticé rostraté et perforatd, fora- mine interdum integro, deltidio clauso, interdum im- perfecto, deltidio plus minus partito, valvd infernd dorsali, plerumque planiore ; cardine processibus denti- formibus varie callosis in valvd ventrali composito, processibus alteris in valvud dorsali valide wterclau- dentibus; valvd dorsali ad cardinem lobatd, apophyse internad varid munita.

Shell inequivalve, equilateral, globose or ovate, sometimes rather depressed, now smooth, now radiately striated or ribbed, always*punctured, upper valve ventral, tu- midly convex, beaked and perforated posteriorly, per- foration sometimes entire, with a closed deltidium, sometimes made imperfect by a more or less divided deltidium, lower valve dorsal, generally flatter; hinge composed of two variously callous tooth-like pro- cesses in the dorsal valve, strongly interlocking with two other processes in the opposite valve; dorsal valve lobed at the hinge and furnished with a vari- able internal apophysis.

Forty years ago, when M. Valenciennes prepared for Lamarck, who was already blind, the monograph of this genus for his Histoire des Animaux sans Vertébres,’ the shells of only twelve to fourteen species of recent Tere- bratule had been observed, the soft parts of only one, and the organization of the Brachiopods generally was only very imperfectly known. Although Linnzus had remarked that the animal of 7. caput-serpentis differs not less from any other animal that he had found im shells, than night from day,—‘animal quod intus conditur 4 vermibus qui aliis in conchis omnibus sibi invicem fere sunt similes non dif- fert minus quam 4 nocte dies,’—the Zerebratule and its allies were still arranged with the lamellibranchiate Con- chifera.

De Blainville, and subsequently, by a more elaborate in- vestigation, Professor Owen, ascertained that the branchize do not exist in the form of lamelle, but are incorporated bya system of vessels with the mantle-lobes. Along with the discovery of the phenomenon that the mantle-lobes of the Brachiopods perform not only the office of secreting the shell, but also of respiration, another peculiarity was ob-

served, namely, that the valves are differently placed from those of other bivalves, with regard to the position of the animal,—that, in fact, they are not side-valves connected dorsally by a cartilage and ligament, but dorsal and ventral valves connected, in the Teredratule, by closely interlock- ing tooth-like processes in relation with an internal apo- physary skeleton, and a complicated system of muscles, to which may be added a force acquired through the habit of the animal in affixing itself to foreign bodies by a fibrous byssus-like tendon. Another peculiarity which presented itself was the presence of a pair of internal ciliated arms ; and the Brachiopods, even as late as 1830, were arranged by Cuvier and his contemporaries in immediate proximity to the Cirrhipedes. It had, however, been observed that the ciliated arms of the Brachiopod, are quite distinct organs from the cirrhi of the Cirrhipede, and Professor Owen’s beautifully detailed exposition of its anatomy re- moved all doubt on the subject. Projecting from the mouth of the animal on either side, they correspond, or, to speak scientifically, are homologous with, the labial palps of other bivalves, prolonged, as it were, on muscular tuhes so as to require being folded or coiled up. In Terebratula an internal bony skeleton or apophysis is formed, proceed- ing from the hinge in connection with the dorsal valve, for the support of the arms, and being extremely variable in structure, it affords excellent characters to the concho- logist for the distinction of groups.

The Zerebratule are chiefly deep-dwelling Brachiopods, and from the few pains given to dredging them from their native haunts, the varieties of the apophysary skeleton were not until lately known. The dredgings of M. Gau- dichaud, M. D’Orbigny, MM. Quoy and Gaimard, Capt. King, Mr. Cuming, Capt. Belcher, Professor Forbes, Mr. MacAndrew, Mr. Barlee, and others, have furnished spe- cimens with internal skeletons, coupled with valuable ba- thymetrical observations ; and the different forms of apo- physis, and corresponding development of the arms, have been well observed by M. D’Orbigny, Mr. Davidson, Mr. Woodward, and Mr. King. Excellent systematic cata- logues of both recent and fossil species have been published by Mr. Davidson, and by Dr. Gray, assisted by Mr. Wood- ward, in which the different forms of apophysis are em- ployed as the grounds of subdivision, and the geographical distribution of the species in space, in depth, and in time has been worked out with much ingenuity by Professor Suess.

February, 1861.

TEREBRATULA.—Prate I.

It is not convenient, nor indeed practicable, to give the descriptions and figures of shells in this work in their na- tural order; but in the case of the present genus I have indicated the systematic distribution of the species now commonly adopted, by using the newly-introduced names of genera as sub-genera. ‘The variations of the apophysis upon which these are founded are as follows :—

1. WaLpuEIMia, King ; a free, largely-produced ribbon- like loop, considerably reflected. Pl. 2. f. 3 a. Nine species.

. TrREBRATULA, Lhwyd; loop small, simple, not re- flected. Pl. 3.f. 8 a. Two species.

3. TEREBRATULINA, D’ Ord. ; loop small, arched into a circle on projecting blades. Pl. 4. f. 15 ¢. Six species.

4. TEREBRATELLA, D’Oré. ; a freely-produced ribbon- like loop, resembling that of Waldheimia, and si- milarly reflected, but strengthened across the mid- dle by the additional attachment of a cross pro- cess affixed to a central septum. Pl. 5. f. 20a. Eleven species.

5. Macas; loop resembling that of Terebratella but more contracted, with the cross process more broadly laminated next the septum. PI. 8. f. 31 a. Two species.

. Boucuarpta ; loop obsolete owing to the callous thickening of the hinge and adjacent parts; apo- physes represented by the septum and laminated processes of Magas produced and thickened into the form of an anchor. PI. 8. f. 33. Three species.

7. Kratssta; no loop; apophysis represented by a central septum, from the extremity of which di- verge a pair of fan-like processes. Pl. 9. f. 37 a and 38 6. Five species.

8. Mecerite ; loop moderate, trebly attached, to blades projecting from the hinge, to a broad cross process affixed to a central septum, and on either side by a short intermediate lobed process. Pl. 11. f. 47 6. One species.

9. GWyNIA?; apophysis unknown. One species.

10. Morrista ; loop short, attached to a central process in the form of a spur, not reflected. Pl. 10. f. 41. Three species.

11, Anetors ; loop lobed, sweeping round the valve, supported in front by one to three short marginal septa. Pl. 10. f.43a@and 45a. Four species.

12. THEcIDEA ; loop four-lobed, callously affixed to the valve. Pl. 11. f.48c¢. One species.

Geographical Distribution.

wo

lor}

It is difficult to generalize on the geographical distri-

bution of the Zeredratule, with the hope of arriving at many conclusions of interest, without embracing the fossil As might be expected in the case of a tribe of animals which existed so much more abundantly in the primeval seas, and are perhaps destined at no very remote period to disappear altogether, they are much scattered, and are not abundant in individuals. Nevertheless there are few genera of mollusks of which the habitats and spe- cific nature are now so well known. Of the forty-eight recorded species of Zerebratula (cited rather at random by authors at from sixty to seventy in number), four are based upon single specimens of somewhat doubtful specific value, without any information as to their habitats,—cancellata, Bouchardii, transversa, suffusa ; but their relationship with undoubted species is not sufficiently obvious to admit of their being discarded. Of three species (radiata, supposed to be a native of Corea; crenulata, of the Canaries, and dilatata, of Coquimbo, or the Strait of Magellan) the ha- bitats are not well authenticated, and appear to me to be doubtful. Of the habitats of the remaining forty-one spe- cies there is no manner of doubt; but of two of these the specific value is open to criticism—physema and capsula. There remain, then, thirty-nine species of which the sub- genus (founded on the structure of the apophysis), the species, and the habitat may be relied on.

species.

DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES IN PROVINCES. Eastern Hemisphere.

Terebratulina abyssicola.

Terebratella Coreanica.

IV. Indo-Pacific Province. Waldheimia picta. Terebratulina Cumingii. Terebratella sanguinea.

I. North European.

Waldheimia cranium. septigera. Terebratulina caput-serpentis. Terebratella Labradorensis. Spitzbergensis.

II. Lusitanian Province. Terebratula vitrea.

V. Australo-Zealandic Province. Waldheimia flavescens,

Terebratulina caput-serpentis. Megerlia truncata.

Morrisia Anomioides. Davidsoni.

lunifera.

Argiope decollata. cuneata.

—— Neapolitana. cistellula. Thecidea Mediterranea,

Ill. North Asiatie Province.

Waldheimia Grayi. Terebratulina Japonica.

lenticularis. Terebratella cruenta. rubella. rubicunda. Magas Valenciennesii. Bouchardia fibula. Cumingii. Kraussia Lamarckiana.

VI. South African Province. Kraussia rubra. cognata. —— pisum. Deshayesii.

Western Hemisphere.

VII. Magellanie Province.

Terebratula uva. Terebratella Magellanica,

VIII. Panamie Province.

Terebratula uva. Waldheimia globosa.

TEREBRATULA.—Ptate I.

IX. Brazilian Province. X. North American Province.

Bouchardia tulipa. Terebratulina caput-serpentis.

DISTRIBUTION OF SUBGENERIC TYPEs. Terebratula.—lusitanian, Magellanic, and Panamic provinces. Waldheimia.—North European, North Asiatic, Indo-Pacific, Australo- Zealandic, and Panamic provinces.

Terebratulina—North European, Lusitanian, North Asiatic, Indo- Pacific, and North American provinces.

Terebratella—North Kuropean, North Asiatic, Indo-Pacific, Australo- Zealandic, and Magellanic provinces.

Magas.—Australo-Zealandic province.

Bouchardia.—Australo-Zealandic and Brazilian provinces.

Megerlia.—Lusitanian province.

Kraussia.—Austvalo-Zealandic and South African provinces.

Morrisia.—Lnusitanian province.

Argiope.—Lusitanian and Celtic provinces.

Thecidea.—Lusitanian province.

Summary.

1. Of the thirty-nine species cited in the foregoing ana- lysis, thirty-five belong to the Old World, only four to the New. None of the species are common to both, with the single exception of Terebratulina caput-serpentis of the North European and Lusitanian provinces, which ranges in a modified form (7. septentrionalis, Couthouy) to the eastern shores of North America. Two species of Zere- bratula have been described by Dr. Gould in Wilkes’s Ex- ploring Expedition’ (7. cawrina and pulvinata), from Pu- get Sound, Oregon; but I have not seen them.

2. The distribution of subgenera illustrates a few cha- racteristic centres of creation. Megerlia, Morrisia, Ar- giope, and Thecidea, all have their home in the Lusitanian province,—one species only, Aryiope cistellula, passing into the Celtic province, which has no centre of specific creation of its own. A7vaussia has its home in the South African province, embracing four species. A fifth species, K. Lamarkiana, is found in the Australo-Zealandic pro- vince; but the apophysis, on which the subgenus is founded, is abnormal in its structure.

3. Of subgeneric types widely removed, Bouchardia presents curious instances. B. ¢udipa, a solitary species on the shores of Brazil, is undoubtedly identical in type with B. fibula and Cumingii, which are natives of Australia and New Zealand, though no Faunas of any two provinces can be more generally dissimilar. The same may be said of Waldheimia and Terebratella ; but these subgenera are more abundant in species and individuals, distributed in local centres of creation of more varying specific character.

4. Of specific types widely removed, a notable instance is presented in Waldheimia globosa of California, and lenticularis, a native of New Zealand. Not only are these two very remote species of the same specific type, but the difference of their specific details is scarcely appreciable.

5. The most characteristic assemblages of species are those of Terebratulina in the North Huropean and North Asiatic provinces, Waldheimia in the Panamic, of Zere- bratella in the Magellanic, and of Morrisia and Argiope in the Lusitanian province.

6. Species are fewest within the Tropics. The Indo- Pacific province, which extends from Australia to Japan, and from the Red Sea and east coast of Africa to Haster Island in the Pacific, embracing three-fifths of the circum- ference of the globe and forty-five degrees of latitude, yields only three species—Waldheimia picta, Terebratulina Cumingi, and Terebratella sanguinea ; and of the first two, very few individuals are known.

7. Species, with few exceptions, are very local. The exceptions are Terebratulina caput-serpentis, which ranges, as already noticed, from the Arctic to the Mediterranean Seas and to the seas of North America, and is very closely represented in the North Asiatic provinces by 7. Japonica and abyssicola. Another exception to the local distribution of species is presented in Waldheima picta, which is found both at Java and at the Friendly Islands. A third excep- tion is one of similar character: Terebratella sanguinea inhabits both the Philippine and Sandwich Islands. And a fourth exception occurs in Zerebratula wva, collected originally at Guatemala, but of which small specimens, in the British Museum and in Mr. Cuming’s collections, have been received from the Falkland Islands.

8. Lastly, the Australo-Zealandic province may be no- ticed as being the most prolific of forms and brilliancy of colour; but all the subgenera of this province, with the exception of Mayas, have species, though none of the same, in other provinces.

The Zerebratule live at various depths, reaching nearly to the deepest limit of molluscan life, attached to corals, stones, fragments of shells, and to one another. The na- tural position of the animal is to repose upon its back, the smaller or dorsal valve being undermost, and a mooring is secured by means of the byssus-like tendon or pedicle let down from the overhanging ventral valve, which is beaked on one side and perforated for the purpose. The perforation is very liable to erosion and damage from the buffeting of the water, more so in some species than in others, and it becomes more or less enlarged accordingly. To meet this the area below the perforation is constructed of a pair of plates, termed the deltidium, and as the foramen enlarges, the plates separate from each other like a sliding panel. The substance of the shell is invariably punctured throughout, differing generically in this respect from that of Rhynchonella, and it is a beautiful object under the microscopic, or even under an ordinary lens.

For description of the accompanying plate see Pl. II.

TEREBRATULA.—Puiate I.

It is not convenient, nor indeed practicable, to give the descriptions and figures of shelis in this work in their na- tural order; but in the case of the present genus I have indicated the systematic distribution of the species now commonly adopted, by using the newly-introduced names of genera as sub-genera. ‘The variations of the apophysis upon which these are founded are as follows :—

1. WaLpueimta, King ; a free, largely-produced ribbon- like loop, considerably reflected. Pl. 2. f. 3 a. Nine species.

2. TerEBRATULA, Lhwyd; loop small, simple, not re- flected. Pl. 3.f. 8a. Two species.

3. TEREBRATULINA, D’Orb. ; loop small, arched into a circle on projecting blades. Pl. 4. f. 15 ¢. Six species.

4. TEREBRATELLA, D’Oré. ; a freely-produced ribbon- like loop, resembling that of Waldheimia, and si- milarly reflected, but strengthened across the mid- dle by the additional attachment of a cross pro- cess affixed to a central septum. Pl. 5. f. 20a. Eleven species.

5. Maeas; loop resembling that of Terebratella but more contracted, with the cross process more broadly laminated next the septum. PI. 8. f. 31 a. Two species.

6. Boucuarpta ; loop obsolete owing to the callous thickening of the hinge and adjacent parts; apo- physes represented by the septum and laminated processes of Magas produced and thickened into the form of an anchor. PI. 8. f. 33. Three species.

. Kravssta; no loop; apophysis represented by a central septum, from the extremity of which di- verge a pair of fan-like processes. Pl. 9. f. 87a and 38 4. Five species.

8. MrcEeRLE ; loop moderate, trebly attached, to blades projecting from the hinge, to a broad cross process affixed to a central septum, and on either side by a short intermediate lobed process. Pl. 11. f. 47 6. One species.

9..GwynrIA?; apophysis unknown. One species.

10. Morris1a ; loop short, attached to a central process in the form of a spur, not reflected. Pl. 10. f. 41. Three species.

11, AraiopE ; loop lobed, sweeping round the valve, supported in front by one to three short marginal septa. Pl. 10. f.43a@ and 45a. Four species.

12. TuEcIpDEA ; loop four-lobed, callously affixed to the valve. Pl. 11. f. 48 e.

Geographical Distribution.

~

One species.

It is difficult to generalize on the geographical distri-

bution of the Zerebratule, with the hope of arriving at many conclusions of interest, without embracing the fossil species. As might be expected in the case of a tribe of animals which existed so much more abundantly in the primeval seas, and are perhaps destined at no very remote period to disappear altogether, they are much scattered, and are not abundant in individuals. Nevertheless there are few genera of mollusks of which the habitats and spe- Of the forty-eight recorded species of Zerebratula (cited rather at random by authors at from sixty to seventy in number), four are based upon single specimens of somewhat doubtful specific value, without any information as to their habitats,—cancellata, Bouchardii, transversa, suffusa ; but their relationship with undoubted species is not sufficiently obvious to admit of their being discarded. Of three species (radiata, supposed to be a native of Corea; crenulata, of the Canaries, and dilatata, of Coquimbo, or the Strait of Magellan) the ha- bitats are not well authenticated, and appear to me to be doubtful. Of the habitats of the remaining forty-one spe- cies there is no manner of doubt; but of two of these the specific value is open to criticism—physema and capsula. There remain, then, thirty-nine species of which the sub- genus (founded on the structure of the apophysis), the species, and the habitat may be relied on.

cific nature are now so well known.

DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES IN PROVINCEs. Eastern Hemisphere.

Terebratulina abyssicola. Terebratella Coreanica.

IV. Indo-Pacific Province. Waldheimia picta. Terebratulina Cumingii. Terebratella sanguinea.

I. North European. Waldheimia cranium. septigera. Terebratulina caput-serpentis. Terebratella Labradorensis.

Spitzbergensis.

II. Lusttanian Province. Terebratula vitrea.

V. Australo-Zealandic Province. Waldheimia flavescens.

Terebratulina caput-serpentis. lenticularis.

Megerlia truncata. Terebratella cruenta.

Morrisia Anomioides. rubella. Dayidsoni. rubicunda. lunifera. Magas Valenciennesii.

Argiope decollata. Bouchardia fibula. cuneata. Cumingii.

—— Neapolitana. Kraussia Lamarckiana.

cistellula. Thecidea Mediterranea.

Ill. North Asiatic Province.

Waldheimia Grayi. Terebratulina Japonica.

VI. South African Province.

Kraussia rubra.

cognata. —— pisun. —— Deshayesii.

Western Hemisphere.

VII. Magellanic Province.

Terebratula uva. Terebratella Magellanica,

VILL. Panamie Province.

Terebratula uva. Waldheimia globosa.

TEREBRATULA.—Ptate LL

IX. Brazilian Province. X. North American Province.

Bouchardia tulipa. Terebratulina caput-serpentis.

DIsTRIBUTION OF SUBGENERIC TyYPEs. Terebratula.—Lusitanian, Magellanic, and Panamiec provinces. Waldheimia.—North European, North Asiatic, Indo-Pacific, Australo- Zealandic, and Panamic provinces.

Terebratulina.—North European, Lusitanian, North Asiatic, Indo- Pacific, and North American provinces.

Terebratella—North European, North Asiatic, Indo-Pacific, Australo- Zealandic, and Magellanic provinces.

Magas.—Australo-Zealandic province.

Bouchardia.—Australo-Zealandic and Brazilian provinces.

Megerlia.—Lusitanian province.

Kraussia.—Australo-Zealandic and South African provinces.

Morrisia.—Lusitanian province.

Argiope—Lusitanian and Celtic provinces.

Thecidea.—Lusitanian province.

Summary.

1. Of the thirty-nine species cited in the foregoing ana- lysis, thirty-five belong to the Old World, only four to the New. None of the species are common to both, with the single exception of Terebratulina caput-serpentis of the North European and Lusitanian provinces, which ranges in a modified form (2. septentrionalis, Couthouy) to the eastern shores of North America. ‘Two species of Tere- bratula have been described by Dr. Gould in Wilkes’s Ex- ploring Expedition’ (7. cawrina and pulvinata), from Pu- get Sound, Oregon; but I have not seen them.

2. The distribution of subgenera illustrates a few cha- racteristic centres of creation. Megerlia, Morrisia, Ar- giope, and Thecidea, all have their home in the Lusitanian province,—one species only, Aryiope cistellula, passing into the Celtic province, which has no centre of specific creation of its own. A7vaussia has its home in the South African province, embracing four species. A fifth species, K. Lamarkiana, is found in the Australo-Zealandic pro- vince; but the apophysis, on which the subgenus is founded, is abnormal in its structure.

3. Of subgeneric types widely removed, Bouchardia presents curious instances. B. tulipa, a solitary species on the shores of Brazil, is undoubtedly identical in type with B. fibula and Cumingii, which are natives of Australia and New Zealand, though no Faunas of any two provinces can be more generally dissimilar. The same may be said of Waldheimia and Terebratella ; but these subgenera are more abundant in species and individuals, distributed in local centres of creation of more varying specific character.

4. Of specific types widely removed, a notable instance is presented in Waldheimia globosa of California, and 7”. lenticularis, a native of New Zealand. Not only are these two very remote species of the same specific type, but the difference of their specific details is scarcely appreciable.

5. The most characteristic assemblages of species are those of Terebratulina in the North European and North Asiatic provinces, Waldheimia in the Panamic, of Tere- bratella in the Magellanic, and of Morrisia and Argiope in the Lusitanian province.

6. Species are fewest within the Tropics. The Indo- Pacific province, which extends from Australia to Japan, and from the Red Sea and east coast of Africa to Haster Island in the Pacific, embracing three-fifths of the cireum- ference of the globe and forty-five degrees of latitude, yields only three species—Waldheimia picta, Terebratulina Cumingii, and Terebratella sanguinea ; and of the first two, very few individuals are known.

7. Species, with few exceptions, are very local. The exceptions are Terebratulina caput-serpentis, which ranges, as already noticed, from the Arctic to the Mediterranean Seas and to the seas of North America, and is very closely represented in the North Asiatic provinces by 7. Japonica and abyssicola. Another exception to the local distribution of species is presented in Waldheima picta, which is found both at Java and at the Friendly Islands. A third excep- tion is one of similar character: Terebratella sanguinea inhabits both the Philippine and Sandwich Islands. And a fourth exception occurs in Zerebratula uva, collected originally at Guatemala, but of which small specimens, in the British Museum and in Mr. Cuming’s collections, have been received from the Falkland Islands.

8. Lastly, the Australo-Zealandic province may be no- ticed as being the most prolific of forms and brilliancy of colour; but all the subgenera of this province, with the exception of Magas, have species, though none of the same, in other provinces.

The Zerebratule live at various depths, reaching nearly to the deepest limit of molluscan life, attached to corals, stones, fragments of shells, and to one another. The na- tural position of the animal is to repose upon its back, the smaller or dorsal valve being undermost, and a mooring is secured by means of the byssus-like tendon or pedicle let down from the overhanging ventral valve, which is beaked on one side and perforated for the purpose. The perforation is very liable to erosion and damage from the buffeting of the water, more so in some species than in others, and it becomes more or less enlarged accordingly. To meet this the area below the perforation is constructed of a pair of plates, termed the deltidium, and as the foramen enlarges, the plates separate from each other like a sliding panel. The substance of the shell is invariably punctured throughout, differing generically in this respect from that of Rhynchonella, and it is a beautiful object under the microscopic, or even under an ordinary lens.

For description of the accompanying plate see PI. II.

A . j ; i .

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i {oifa nize i i \S ; . et: , ais)

BPR Fe Te te } s ' s

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Td Mrnqnpp-le |

TEREBRATULA.

Prate II.

Species 1. (Pl. 1. Mus. Brit.; Pl. 2. Fig. 1 @, Mus. Metcalfe; Fig. 1 4, Mus. Taylor.)

TEREBRATULA (WALDHEIMIA) FLAVESCENS. br. testd subtrigono-ovatd, tenuiculd, inflata, sordide flavescente- corned, semipellucidd, rostro obeso, nunc rectiusculo, plus minusve producto, nunc recurvo, foramine sub- amplo, deltidio integro, amplo ; valvis tripartito-flexuo- sis, medio levibus, deinde radiatim plicato-costatis, ad marginem acute undatis ; apophyse elongata, latius- culd, conspicue reflexa.

THE YELLOWISH WaLDHEIMIA. Shell somewhat trian- gularly ovate, rather thin, inflated, dull yellowish- horny, semitransparent, beak stout, sometimes rather straight, and more or less produced, sometimes re- curved, foramen rather large, deltidium entire, large ; valves tripartitely flexuous, smooth in the middle, then radiately plicately ribbed, sharply zigzag at the edge; loop elongated, rather broad, conspicuously reflected back.

Terebratula flavescens, Lamarck, Anim. sans vert. vol. vii. p. 330.

Terebratula dentata, Lamarck.

Terebratula australis, Quoy.

Waldheimia australis, King.

Terebratula recurva, Quoy. Hab. South Anstralia.

This well-known species inhabits the shores of South Australia in great abundance. The fragment of rock, with lumerous specimens attached to it, represented in Plate I., was brought by Mr. Jukes from Port Jackson, Australia ; and MM. Quoy and Gaimard relate, in their account of the mollusca of the voyage of the Astrolabe,’ that at Port Western, Bass’ Straits, hundreds were brought up at each haul of the dredge, either grouped among themselves by their pedicles or attached to the debris of other shells. The small species mingled with this upon the stone in Plate L., is 7. Lamarckiana.

Species 2. (Mus. Metcalfe.)

TEREBRATULA (WALDHEIMIA) DILATATA. er. testd sub- orbiculari, sordidé fuscescente-albd, rostro lato, bre- viusculo, subtus utringue depresso, foramine amplo, deltidio lirato, partito ; valvis yibbosiusculis, levibus ; apophyse valde producta, elongato-reflexd.

THE DILATED WaLDHEIMIA. Shell nearly orbicular,

| THE GLOBOSE WALDHEIMIA.

dull brownish-white, beak broad, rather short, de- pressed beneath on either side, foramen large, delti- dium ridged, divided ; valves rather gibbous, smooth ; loop much produced, elongately reflected. Terebratula dilatata, Lamarck, Anim. sans vert. vol. vii. p. 330. Terebratula Gaudichaudi, De Blainville. Hab. Straits of Magellan ?

The only specimens known to me of this species are the one here figured, from the collection of Mr. Metcalfe, one of about the same dimensions in the British Museum, and one scarcely so large in the Museum of the Bristol Insti- tution. There are specimens of much larger size, Mr. Davidson informs me, in Paris, in the collections of the Jardin des Plantes and of M. Delessert. The habitat ‘Straits of Magellan,’ given by Dr. Gray in the British Museum Catalogue, is hardly sufficiently well authenti- cated.

Species 3. (Fig. a, c, Mus. Metcalfe ; Fig. 6, Mus. Taylor.)

TEREBRATULA (WALDHEIMIA) GLOBOosA. Ter. ovato-globosd, olivaceo-corned, rostro producto, sub-

testa

acute incurvo, subtus utringue excavato-depresso, fora- mine parvo, interdum minuto, deltidio partito, radiatim sulcato, transversim concentrice rugato ; valvis levibus, obsolete malleatis, obscurissimé tripartitim flecuosis, lineis incrementi plerumque rudibus ; apophyse am- pliter producta et reflexd.

Shell ovately globose, olive-horny, beak produced, rather sharply incurved, excavately depressed beneath on either side, foramen small, sometimes minute, deltidium divided, radiately grooved, transversely concentrically wrinkled ; valves smooth, obsoletely malleated, very obscurely tripar- titely flexuous, lines of growth rude; loop largely produced and reflected.

| Lerebratula globosa, Lamarck, Anim. sans vert. vol. vii. p.

330. Terebratula Californica, Koch. Hab. California, Coquimbo.

The only shell that has been assigned to Lamarck’s 1. globosa is a single worn specimen of the well-known Californian species above described, in which the foramen is largely eroded and the deltidium forced open by age or

November, 1860.

TEREBRATULA.—P are II.

by some pressure at its place of attachment. No shell has been found to correspond with the figure to which Lamarck refers in the Encyclopédie Méthodique,’ and I believe it to have been drawn from an old worn specimen like Mr. Cuming’s, with the foramen and deltidium eroded, and the rude uneven lines of growth exaggerated into regular

concentric ridges. De Blainville gives Lamarck’s 7. glo-

bosa, but he does not appear to have had the shell. His | figure is merely a copy, with ali its infirmities, of the ‘En- |

cyclopédie’ figure, on a reduced scale. The immature rounded specimen from Mr. Taylor’s Collection, repre- sented at Fig. 3 J, has the habitat, “de Coquimbo,” written upon it in French.

Species 4. (Mus. Cuming.)

TEREBRATULA (WALDHEIMIA) LENTICULARIS. Ter.

testéd ovato-ylobosd, inflata, flavescente-corned, plus |

minus vivide miniatd, rostro producto, subacute in-

curvo, subtus utringque excavato-depresso, foramine |

parco, deltidio transversim concentrice rugato ; valvis levibus, obsolete malleatis, obscurissimé tripartitim

flexuosis, lineis incrementi rudibus ; apophyse ampliter

producta et reflead.

THE LENS-SHAPED WALDHEIMIA. bose, inflated, yellowish-horny, more or less brightly vermilion-stained, beak produced, rather sharply in- curved, excavately depressed beneath on either side, foramen small, deltidium transversely concentrically wrinkled ; valves smooth, obsoletely malleated, very obscurely tripartitely flexuous, lines of growth gene- rally rude; loop largely produced and reflected.

Terebratula lenticularis, Deshayes, Revue Soc. Cuv. 1839 ; Mag. de Zool. 1841, pl. 41.

Hab. Strait of Fauveau, New Zealand (at a depth of fifteen fathoms.)

Shell ovately glo-

Were it not that the habitats of this and the preceding species are well authenticated, it would be difficult to be- lieve that there is any specific difference between them. This is rather lighter inflated growth, and the colour is remarkable, but the characters in other respects are the The foramen is probably as small as in 7. globosa ; in all the specimens of 7”. lenticu- laris that I have seen it is more or less eroded, according to the circumstances of its attachment. cisely the same in both species.

same in detail throughout.

The loop is pre- |

Species 5. (Fig. a, Mus. Cuming; Fig. 4, c, Mus. Metcalfe.)

JEREBRATULA (WALDHEIMIA) Gray. Ter. testd sub- trigono-orbiculari, gibbosd, rudi, radiatim costata, costis irreguluribus, subdistantibus, obscuré squamatis, versus marginem sepe bipartitis, livido-olivaced vel flavescente, costis plus minus vivide miniatis aut san- guineo-tinctis, rostro brevissimo, obtuso, foramine per- amplo, semper plus minus eroso, deltidio peramplo, medio late partito ; valvis valde inequalibus, dorsali planiusculd, ventrali valde convext ; apophyse producta et reflext.

Gray's WatpHeErmia. Shell subtriangularly orbicular, gibbous, rude, radiately ribbed, ribs irregular, rather distant, obscurely scaled, often divided towards the margin, livid-olive or yellowish, ribs more or less brightly stained with vermilion or blood-red, beak. very short, obtuse, foramen very large, always more or less eroded, deltidium very large, broadly divided in the middle; valves very unequal, dorsal rather flat, ventral gibbously convex; loop produced and reflected.

Terebratula Grayi, Davidson, Pro. Zool. Soc. 1852, p. 76. pl. 14. f. 1 to 3.

Hab. Strait of Corea; Belcher.

In a dozen specimens of this beautiful species now be- fore me, in different stages of growth, collected in the Strait of Corea by Admiral Sir Edward Belcher during the

voyage of the ‘Samarang,’ it is curious to observe the use

of the deltidium in Zerebratula. The foramen of the shell naturally becomes more or less eroded and enlarged ac-

| cording to the roughness with which the creature is buf-

feted about in its place of attachment; and the deltidium in those Zerebratule of which the beak is not much pro- duced, is in two pieces, which separate from each other, with

| the enlargement of the foramen, like a sliding panel. In

very young specimens of 7’. Grayi the deltidium plates meet in the middle, and the beak of this species being very short, the foramen soon erodes and enlarges, so much so that in adult specimens the deltidium plates are parted from each other to the distance of a quarter of an inch. The ribs of 7. Grayi are not really scaled, but scales are formed on them by the overlapping of the concentric lines of growth, and the colour is of deeper tone at these points. We are indebted to Mr. Davidson for distinguishing this species from the old Anomia rubra of Pallas, which belongs to the subgenus Avaussia. It is smaller, and has not a

| looped apophysis.

Terebratula PLM

“Amcent Brooks imp.

RR ie Yai i os y Pe ERR

pate i pay PROM a anne’

TEREBRATULA.

Puate IIT.

Species 6. (Mus. Cuming.)

TEREBRATULA (WALDHEIMIA) CRANIUM. Ter. testd ovato-globosd, levigatd, flavescente-alba, corned, rostro brevi, tumidiusculo, foramine subamplo, imperfecto, deltidio aut parvo aut nullo; valvis ambabus tumido- convexis, ad marginem paululum contractis ; apophyse subelongatd, reflexa.

Tas skutt WatpueErmta. Shell ovately globose, smooth, yellowish-white, horny, beak short, rather swollen, foramen rather large, incomplete, deltidium either small or none; both valves tumidly convex, a little contracted at the margin; loop rather elongated, re- flected.

Terebratula cranium, Miller, Zool. Dan. Prod. p. 209. Anomia cranium, Gmelin.

Terebratula vitrea, Fleming.

Hab. Norway; Finmark. East of Zetland; Fleming,

Barlee.

Dr. Gray quotes dnomia vitrea, Chemnitz, as a synonym of this species, incorrectly. men, in the Edinburgh Encyclopedia’ and in his Phi- losophy of Zoology,’ 7. vitrea, but the Anomia vitrea of the Conchylien Cabinet is the true vitrea, Sp. 8. 7. cra- nium is a Scandinavian species, and is only included in the British fauna on the grounds of its discovery, on two different occasions, about thirty miles east of Zetland, by Dr. Fleming and Mr. Barlee.

Dr. Fleming named a speci-

Species 7. (Fig. a, 6, Mus. Cuming.)

TEREBRATULA (TEREBRATULINA) RADIATA. subtrigono-ovatd, gibbosd, versus marginem flexuoso- undata, subpellucido-alba, sparsim nigro radiata, rostro brevi, foramine amplo, imperfecto, deltidio parvo, vix nullo; valvis radiatim dense lineari-sulcatis, sulcis irregularibus ; apophyse parva, brevi, haud reflerd. RAYED TEREBRATULINA. Shell triangularly ovate, gibbous, flexuously waved towards the margin, semi- transparent white, sparingly rayed with black, beak short, foramen large, incomplete, deltidium small, scarcely any; valves densely radiately linearly grooved, grooves irregular; loop small, short, not reflected. Hab. Strait of Corea ?

THE

An interesting species, of the same subgeneric type as T. caput-serpentis, flexuously waved towards the margin,

and rayed in a very characteristic manner with broad pen- cils of black. mens, all exactly alike, procured, he fancies, from the dredgings of Sir E. Belcher in the Strait of Corea.

Mr. Cuming possesses two or three speci-

Species 8. (Fig. a, c, Mus. Cuming; Fig. 4, Mus. De Burgh.)

TEREBRATULA VITREA. er. testd subguadrato-globosi, tenuiculd, pellucido-albd, vitred, rostro tumido, breviter incurvo, foramine parviusculo, deltidio parvo, vi« nullo ; valwis ambabus tumido-convexis, levibus aut dense concentricé minutissime striatis ; apophyse parva, simplici.

THe GLassy TEREBRATULA. Shell somewhat squarely globose, rather thin, transparent-white, glassy, beak swollen, shortly incurved, foramen rather small, del- tidium small, scarcely any ; both valves tumidly con- vex, smooth, or densely concentrically very minutely striated; loop small, simple.

Anomia vitrea, Born, Test. Mus. Ces. p. 119, p. 116. vign. Anomia terebratula, Gmelin.

Terebratula vitrea, Lamarck. Anomia terebratula, Dillwyn. Terebratula enthyra, Philippi.

| Hab. Mediterranean (in nullipore mud at a depth of from

Ter. testa |

ninety-two to two hundred and fifty fathoms); HE. Forbes. Vigo Bay (at a depth of forty fathoms) ; M‘Andrew.

This is the type of Zeredratula proper, and there is only

one other recent species, 7. wa. They represent, how-

| ever, a series of more than a hundred fossil species.

Species 9. (Fig. a, Mus. De Burgh; Fig. 6, Mus. Taylor.)

TEREBRATULA (WALDHEIMIA) PIcTa. er. testd ovatd, obscure tripartitd, anticé et postice subattenuatd, levi- gata, sanguineo-aurantid aut flavicante, strigis macu- lisque pallidis irregularibus paucis lentiginosd, rostro parco, incurvo, foramine mediocri, deltidio perangusto concentricé rugato ; valvis subequalibus, medio promi- nulis ; apophyse elongata, recurva.

THE PaINTED WaLDHEIMIA. Shell ovate, obscurely tri- partite, anteriorly and posteriorly a little attenuated, smooth, blood-stained orange or yellowish, speckled

November, 1860.

TEREBRATULA.—Ptare III.

with a few irregular pale spots and streaks, beak small, incurved, foramen middling, deltidium very narrow, concentrically wrinkled ; valves nearly equal, prominent in the middle; loop elongated, recurved. Anomia picta, Chemnitz, Conch. Cab. vol. 11. p. 247. pl: 203. f. 2011, 2012. Lerebratula sanguinea, Sowerby (in Genera of Shells,’ not in Thesaurus’). Lerebratula erythroleuca, Quoy. Hab. Java.

All the specimens that I have seen of this very prettily painted Waldheimia agree precisely with Chemnitz’s ori- ginal figure in the Conchylien Cabinet. .be little or no variation in the species. Dr. Gray quotes Mr. Sowerby’s 7. rubella as a variety of TZ. picta, but 1 have fully verified Mr. Davidson’s observation, that 7. 7w- bella has the apophysary system of Zerebratedla.

There appears to

Species 10. (Mus. Cuming.)

TERBBRATULA (WALDHEIMIA) SEPTIGHRA. tr. testd subquadrato-ovatd, medio versus marginem anticam depressd, pellucido-albd, corned, levigatd, rostro sub- attenuate producto, foramine mediocri, integro, deltidio mtegro, lonyitudinaliter rugato; valvis dense minute concentricé striatis ad marginem anticam sinuatis , apophyse elongata, recurvd, septo valve dorsalis pro- minente.

THE SHELVED WaLDHEIMIA. Shell somewhat squarely ovate, depressed in the middle towards the anterior margin, transparent-white, horny, smooth, beak ra- ther attenuately produced, foramen moderate, en- tire, deltidium entire, longitudinally wrinkled ; valves densely minutely concentrically striated, sinuated at

the anterior margin; loop elongated, recurved, sep- tum of the dorsal valve prominent. Terebratula septigera, Loeven, Index Moll. Scand. p. 29. Hab. Norway; Finmark.

This species is undoubtedly very closely allied to 7. cra- nium. The internal septum, which is characteristic of the dorsal valve of the Waldheimia section, is more prominent, but the most striking features of the shell are its produced beak, entire foramen, and distinct corrugated deltidium.

Species 11. (Mus. Cuming.)

TEREBRATULA UVA. utringue compressa, pellucido-albd, corned, levigata,

Ter. testé oblongo-ovatd, postice

rostio tumido-producto, incurvo, foramine peramplo, vie integro, deltidio parvo vel obsoleto ; valvis inequa- libus, ventrali multo majore, ambabus medio gibbosis ; apophyse brevi.

‘THE GRAPE TEREBRATULA. Shell oblong-ovate, poste- riorly compressed on each side, transparent-white, horny, smooth, beak tumidly produced, incurved, foramen very large, scarcely entire, deltidium small or obsolete; valves unequal, the ventral much the larger, both gibbous in the middle; loop short.

Broperip, Pro. Zool. Soc. 1833, p. 124.

Hab. Bay of Tehuantepec, Guatemala (dredged from a depth of from ten to twelve fathoms, sandy mud, attached to a dead sea-worn bivalve) ; Captain Dare.

This curiously compressed species, dredged in the Cen- tral American waters of the Pacific, is the only Zerebratula proper, besides the typical 7. cé¢rea of the Mediterranean. There is a second specimen of it in the collection of Mrs.

De Burgh.

Terebratula PLL.

p me

Vincent Brooks, imp :

iui iniiced

ae * vi

TEREBRATULA.

Puate LV.

Species 12. (Mus. Cuming.)

TEREBRATULA (TEREBRATULINA) Cuminat. er. testd quadrato-ovatd, subpentagonali, opaco-albd, radiatim liratd, liris aliis versus marginem intervenientibus, om- nibus tenue crenulatis, rostro suberecte producto, oblique truncato, foramine amplo, imperfecto, deltidio feré ob- soleto ; valvis subgibboso-convexis, margine serratis ; apophyse parvd, anelliformi.

Comine’s TEREBRATULINA. Shell squarely ovate, nearly pentagonal, opake-white, radiately ridged, with other ridges intervening towards the margin, all finely cre- nulated, beak somewhat erectly produced, obliquely truncated, foramen large, incomplete, deltidium al- most obsolete ; valves rather gibbously convex, ser- rated at the margin; loop small, anelliform.

Davipson, Pro. Zool. Soc. 1852, p. 79. pl. 14. f. 17 to 19.

Hab. China Seas.

An extremely characteristic well-defined species. The radiating ridges do not all diverge together from the beak ; a