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Page Axis, THOMAS, F.L.S. Notice of a nearly complete Skeleton of a Dinornis, presented by Dr. Gibson to the Museum of the Yorkshire Philosophical OCIE Ua eher ata aTiralaiacactocatare ictevanctn, slots, eteiar muha wala! s aie b wianetes 50 Further Note on a Skeleton of ee nis robustus, Owen, in the Norle Museums. eee TE RPM A Sa A Rese cie as er ee 140

Barrp, W., M.D., F.L.S.

Description of a new British Annelide, belonging to the Tribe Rapacea of Grube= Annelida errantia of Milne-Edwards. (CETTE oa) a) Viel seat re ied oboe Enea RR cot hye cai is 8

Description of several new Species and Varieties of Tubicolous Annelides= Tribe Limivora of Grube, in the Collection of the British Museum: (Plates £.-& We)". ee ee 10

On new Tubicolous Annelides, in the Collection of the British Miseuriiss Rant 22s reals sista «are arspejolciens sya) ef icant as atc 157

Description of a New Variety of Lepdonotus cirratus parasitic in Een Rube, Ob Cheetopterts i nstg is ee casa, oft yaix.<i- os) 4 as Sse 161

Contributions towards a Monograph of the Species of Annelides

belonging to the Aphroditacea, containing a List of the known Species, and a Description of some new Species contained in the National Collection of the British Museum ............ 172

BLACKWALL, JOHN, F.L.S. Facts relative to the Movements of Insects on Dry, Polished,

BVO Cala WERE Sy ccrceriercea ahosteeaPav navel a Greate Aa tee teehee Rosle 136 Cosson, T. SpencER, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. : ING ESL OI OCAUTUS ane cane cet imns Ck On oe ee 22

Brief Notice of results obtained by Experiments with Entozoa.. 141 On Animal Individuality from an Entozoological point of view 163 Remarks on the best Methods of displaying Entozoa in Museums 170

Hauipay, A. H., A.M., F.L.S. On Dicellura, a new genus of Insects belonging to the Stirps Miysonura, sm the Order WVeunoprenay o valns sieel ots os te nein ere 162

Hewitson, W. C., Esq., F.L.S. List of Diurnal Lepidoptera collected by Mr. Wallace in the JOSS ASHE NTN BEQOs to cine cnt om pmo eGo Ore Set bn oe.cce 143

Hincxs, Rev. W., F.L.S. On Cygnus Passmort, a supposed new American Swan ...... 1


Pp. Kirk, Joun, M.D., F.L.S. age On the “Tsetse” Fly of Tropical Africa (Glossina morsitans,

WVGSbwO0d)) Tk teeters Siotetalansvem cles aia ins os ot eR 149 Marsuatt, Rev. T. A. COPUNORUNOIUNE SRECOUSION 5 aie io aoe oe Ms ae aks 6 aca ee . 24 Owen, Captain Samvet R. J., F.LS. On the Surface-fauna of mid-Ocean ...... 2... ee eee . 202

RUTHERFORD, WILLIAM, M.D. The Esophagus of the Ruminantia. (PlateIII.) .......... 53

SHortT, JouHn, M.D., F.L.S. peor of a Elsen and Breeding-place of other Water-

birds; 1m Southern india sa. ceece eee ci cieeete eee 94 A brief Account of the Myrmica Kirbit as found in Southern J BAU Ui hata ies a uae Smee tase a and ero Coa ibe <P rapa Hie 8 100

SmiTH, FREDERICK, Esq. “Tasesebons a New Species of Hymenopterous Insects from the Islands of Sumatra, Sula, Gilolo, Salwatty, and New

Guinea, collected by Mr. A. R. Wallace. (PlateIV.)...... 61 WaLkEER, Francis, F.L.S. : Descriptions of New Species of the Dipterous Insects of New CET AG EINES SUSE SL TIENEN SI aa ane eC Ca 102

Descriptions of some New Species of Dipterous Insects from the Island of Salwatty, near New Guinea .................... 130




On Cygnus Passmort, a supposed new American Swan. By the Rev. W. Hincxs, F.L.S., Prof. Nat. Hist. Univ. of Toronto.

[Read January 21, 1864. |

Mr. Passmore, taxidermist, of Toronto, who is an experienced and intelligent observer of the objects which his occupation brings under his notice, obtained a Swan during the last winter, which appeared to him so remarkable that he called my attention to it, and requested my opinion as to the species to which it belongs. On examining it with care, | came to the conclusion that it has not yet been described ; and although the comparison of further specimens would be very desirable, I venture to lay the observa- tions I have made before the Linnean Society, and to name the new species, from its discoverer, Cygnus Passmort.

I regret that I did not see the bird until after it had been pre- pared, when it was no longer possible to obtain all the measure- ments which I should wish to give; but as the sternum, with the trachea, was placed in my hands, and I had also two specimens of the same parts taken from the Cygnus buccinator, I find myself able to give abundantly sufficient characters, accompanied by an interesting correction of the labours of my predecessors.

The Swan which I now introduce to the notice of naturalists resembles in its general aspect Cygnus buccinator of Richardson,



having, like it, the beak, legs, and feet black, and a little colour on the plumage of the head and upper parts of the neck; but the new species, though our specimen is apparently a mature bird, is con- siderably lighter and smaller in size, and the colour is a light dirty grey, slightly tinged with ferruginous about the crown. The same grey tinge is also seen on the tips and inner webs of the quill-feathers of the wings. The prominence of the forehead be- tween the eyes is subangular; and there is a difference, best expressed by a figure, in the course of the line bounding the beak from the eye to the opening of the mouth. In these remarks, I assume that the name Cygnus buccinator must continue to be given to the Great Northern Swan, our commonest species, which, from its peculiar ery, is popularly called the Trumpeter, notwithstanding that two species have been for a time included under the one name, and that it happens that the sternum and trachea communicated by Sir John Richardson to Mr. Yarrell, and by him described and figured in the 17th volume of the Society’s Transactions’ (pp. 1-4, tab. 1), appear to have belonged to a specimen of the new species, and the very remarkable corresponding parts of the true Cygnus buccinator remain, so far as I can ascertain, as yet undescribed. If I am right in conjecturing that the peculiarities to be pointed out in the trachea are immediately connected with the distinguishing ery of the bird which has given cause for the specific name, and in supposing that Sir J. Richardson’s deserip- tion was probably made from a true Trumpeter, though the trachea procured was obtained from one of a species then confounded with it—that at least the preserved specimen referred to by Mr. Yar- rell in his description must have been a Trumpeter—I think I shall be justified in applying the received name to the bird to which it is most appropriate, and bestowing a new one on the smaller species now first distinguished. When, having carefully noted the wide difference between the sternum and trachea in the two species under comparison, I turned to Mr. Yarrell’s figure already referred to, it was with no small surprise that I found it corresponded very nearly with what I took to be the trachea of the new species, instead of that of the true Trumpeter. My first impression was that wrong marks might have been affixed to the spe- cimens, or that I might have confused them, although the com- parative size made this improbable; but on consultimg Mr. Pass- more, he was able to remove all doubt by producing the sternum of asecond Trumpeter, procured at the same time with that in my hands; and, being a female, its agreement with that previously


examined proved that the specimens were from the first rightly referred, and that, in fact, Mr. Yarrell’s figure belongs to our new species, not to the true C. buccinator as we understand it. Comparing my sternum of Cygnus Passmort with Mr. Yarrell’s figure and description, it appears that the bony protrusion at the anterior extremity of the inner face of the sternum is somewhat less solid and less compressed laterally in mine, and that the fold of the trachea within the hollow carina does not advance so far in mine as in Mr. Yarrell’s, both which circumstances are explained by his bird being the older; but the resemblance is too close to admit a doubt of specific identity. I proceed, then, to describe the sternum and trachea of what I regard as the true C. buccinator. In this, as in the preceding case, the trachea descends without changing its course, passing between the branches of the furcula until it reaches the level of the carina, when it bends backwards and enters between the bony plates of the carina. Proceeding backwards and inwards, it rises above the level of the inner face of the sternum, making a wide bow, which is covered by the bone of the inner surface of the posterior portion of the sternum, as represented in Mr. Yarrell’s figure of the sternum of Cygnus Be- wickit (Transactions, vol. xvi. tab. 25. fig. 8) and in the accom- panying drawings. But in C. buccinator the rise of the trachea from the carina is more sudden, so that there are very slight traces of a rising over its course until the commencement of the bow, which is also larger than it is represented in C. Bewickii: and the returning fold of the trachea, instead of immediately passing out as in O. Bewickii, rises into a protuberance at the anterior ex- tremity of the sternum, of the same kind with that of C. Passmori ; but, instead of rising only, as in that species, to the level of the ver- tical bone of the sternum, it rises an inch above it, with a decided inclination to the right side, looking forward. Within this extra- ordinary protuberance the trachea bends round, and, as it descends, comes out under the arch of the furcula, the exterior portion being manifestly enlarged, and having much broader rings, contracting again laterally as it approaches the bone of divarication (see fig. 8). The bronchiw had been destroyed in both specimens of the sternum and trachea of C. buccinator before they came into my hands; but they are described as abruptly much swollen close to the bone of divarication, with the tubes shorter than in Cygnus Passmori. The figure of the sternum itself also seems to differ in the two species, the angular enlargements at each side of the anterior arch on the interior surface being much more dis- 1*


tinct in C. Passmori, and the sinuses at each side of the posterior extremity, which are deep and well defined in C. Passmori, being very obscure in C. buccinator, as if the large swelling over the trachea interfered with them.

T add a few comparative measurements, and have endeavoured faithfully, though rudely, to represent by figures some points of comparison amongst the North American species of Cygnus.

The weight of C. Passmort was 18 lbs., whilst that of a medium specimen of C. buccinator which was compared with it was 30 lbs.

inches. The length, from the tip of the beak to the A C. Passmort 51 end of the tail, of C. buccinator 60 Length of the head in ae ie of the meeting of the mandibles .

Back of the eye to tip of the beak

al C. Passmort 74 C. buceinator 9} 4 C. -Passmort 5 C. buccinator 52 Hind point of the nostril to “oe of the a C. Passmort 2 beak . lal ie C. buceinator 3 Length of sternum . Hope Ci passmon - C. bucewnator 8 C. Passmort 4 Width near the posterior end . | Cte Greatest width of the heart-shaped eleva- tion on the posterior portion of al C. buccinator 34 sternum in st babar as ogee Sao gis Wenoth, ott mesameny usu i a acne aco Steve aba ce

The value of some of these differences can only be determined by repeated trials, but they furnish materials not undeserving of notice.

I believe the ferruginous colour on the head and upper portion of the neck of C. buccinator is constant and very characteristic of the species, and it is probably more widely diffused and conspicuous in the younger birds; yet our smaller bird has scarcely any of the ferruginous tint, which is replaced by very pale grey, whilst the wing-feathers, which are pure white in C. buccinator, are tipped in C. Passmori with a faint fawn-colour. I have mentioned the angular forehead of C. Passmori ; whilst that of C. buccinator has the promi- nence wider and curved, and in C. Americanus it is a much shallower and more open curve. I wish to observe this character in the fresh specimen, lest it should be in any degree affected by the taxidermist’s proceedings; but I am disposed to confide in it.


In C. Passmori the naked black skin reaches the eye, but does not surround it as in C. buccinator, where a narrow black border encloses the eye.

In conclusion, I propose the following character for C. Passmort :

Cycenus Passmori, Hincks. Albus, capite, cervice et pennarum extre-

mitatibus pallide cinereis, rostro etuberculato et pedibus nigris, fronte subangulatim prominente, trachea intra carine parietes et sterni tumorem anteriorem uncialem flexa.

To Sir J. Richardson’s character of Cygnus buccinator I propose

to add :—

Fronte curvatim prominente, trachea intra parietes carine fiexa, anfrac- tum cordiformem paulum intumescentem faciente parte posteriore sterni, tune tumorem alterum biuncialem dextrorsum inclinatum parte anteriore.

The accompanying figure of the head and neck is taken from a photograph by Mr. Octavius Thompson, of Toronto, from the only specimen yet obtained of Cygnus Passmori; and I am indebted

for the drawings of the sternum of Cygnus buccimator to my friend Charles Fuller, Esq., of Toronto.


Fig. 1. Side view of the beak of Cygnus Passmori, natural size.

Fig. 2. Similar view of the beak of Cygnus buccinator.

Figs. 3, 4, & 5. Diagrams showing the different figure of the forehead in the three American species of Swan.


Fig. 1. Fig. 2. ee : Pe ie O hee SS a ee

ine Cygnus Passmore. Cygnus buecinator. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5.

os a oe eae

C. Passmori. C. buccinator. C. Americanus.


Fig. 6. Sternum of Cygnus buccinator, laid on its side ; a portion of the bone of the hollow carina being removed, to show the course of the trachea.

a. The trachea entering the carina.

b. The same, just reaching the place where it rises into the projec- tion at the posterior part of the sternum.

ce. The trachea returning from the wide bow formed at the pos- terior part of the sternum, and bending upwards to enter the tumour after a flexure, within which it proceeds outward and upwards in the usual manner.

_ Fig. 7. Inner surface of the sternum of Cygnus buccinator, reduced to the pro- portion of three to five, showing

a. The cordiform enlargement, formed by a horizontal flexure of the trachea, and raised half an inch from the general level of the sternum.

b. The tumour at the anterior extremity of the sternum, rising two inches above the level, and one inch above the vertical bone, which the tumour in C. Passmori only equals in height.

e. The course of the trachea manifested externally, but without any elevation, the part about ¢ being on the level of the surface of the sternum.

The figure represents the sternum lying on its side, with the inner

surface to the observer, the light coming from the posterior end.

Fig. 8. Upper portion of the trachea, with the bone of divarication, showing the broad rings and the mode in which they meet one another.

[Read May 5, 1864. |

Note.—The following is extracted from a letter received from Mr. Hincks since his paper was read :—

“Toronto, April 10th, 1864.

“During this winter I have made great efforts to obtain specimens throwing light upon the character of my supposed new species ; and though the season has not been very favourable for bringing Swans our way, I have succeeded in obtaining two young male Swans with the entirely black beak of Cygnus bucei- nator, whose sternum I have carefully examined. I take them both to be younger birds than those previously in my possession ; and I am in doubt whether, beginning with the younger, and placing our C. Passmori as part of the series, we have not a suc- cession of degrees of development according to age, leading up to the condition of the trachea in what I have sent as the true C. buccinator. This supposition assumes that the trachea extends with age, that it enters the hollow carina of the sternum, and soon shows a tendency to a double bend; that the pressure of the trachea on the bone of the sternum would modify its (the bone’s) shape (as physiologists will readily acknowledge it might do), and


that the singular bony enlargements on the posterior face of the sternum and in the bumps or knobs at the sternal edge, as seen in the drawing sent, mark the ultimate development of the trachea; whilst the state of the trachea in the sternum sent by Sir John Richardson to Mr. Yarrell, and which I now assign to C. Pass- mort, may be a less advanced form of the same structure, and those I have since examined may be still younger forms of the same species.

“Tt may be, indeed, that the specimens since examined are younger specimens of OC. Passmori, and that the true C. buccinator is less common, or at least a more northern form ; but I think it right to indicate the doubt which I feel myself respecting the new species, leaving the facts for the consideration of better judges. I thought I followed excellent authority in considering such a difference in the trachea as a sufficient mark of a distinct species; but the facts will not be less interesting to ornitholo- gists if they see reason for using such characters with greater caution in future. At present, I must leave the value of my dis- tinetions as a subject for further inquiry, with as little wish to press an unnecessary specific name as to leave interesting facts unrecorded.

“W. Hinecxs.”

Description of a new British Annelide, belonging to the Tribe Rapacea of Grube= Annelida errantia of Milne-Edwards. By W. Barrp, M.D., F.LS.

(Plate I.) [Read April 21, 1864.] Fam. NEREIDIDA.


HeEreronereE!s sienata, Baird. (PI. 1. figs. 1, 1 a—c.)

Char. Corpus pyramidatum, maculatum, dorso et ventre canaliculatum. Segmenta 2ndum, 3rtium, 4tum et 5ntum brevissima ; segmenta sexdecim sequentia magna, pedibus validis, simplicibus ; segmenta partis poste- rioris corporis parva, confertim disposita, pedibus parvis, compositis ; cirri pedum anteriorum simplices, non crenati.

Hab, Polperro, Cornwall; in fundo limoso. (Mus. Brit.)

The body of this Annelide (Pl. I. fig. 1) is nearly 3 incheg long, consisting of about 106 segments. The anterior portion is


about one-third the whole length and is composed of 21 segments, the posterior containing 85. In form it tapers gradually from the head to the tail, which terminates in a blunt point without cirri. The dorsal surface is beautifully marked with dark-purple spots, which extend over the upper part of the feet, leaving a hollow space in the centre free from them. The anterior portion of the body is convex, the lower flattened. The segments of the anterior part are of considerable size, but those of the lower are small and very much crowded together. A canal runs down the ventral surface the whole length, while a similar one runs down the dorsal surface of the anterior portion only, beginning at the sixth or seventh segment and continuing to the twenty-first. The head is rather small; the first segment of the body of moderate size, and the four succeeding ones very narrow (fig. 1d), the first nearly equalling the three following. The tentacular cirri are equal in length to about the four first segments. The feet of the anterior portion of the body (fig. 1 a) are all simple lobulated feet, with- out any foliaceous branchial lamina. The dorsal lobe is short, stout, and rounded at the apex, with a cirrus springing from near its root, about one-third longer than the lobe itself, and not crenated underneath. The ventral lobe is somewhat larger than the dorsal, and the cirrus attached to it is very short, not quite half the length of the lobe. The bristles attached to it are of two kinds: those especially attached to the lobe nearest the dorsal lobe (the superior fascicle) are all slender, compound, with a sharp-pointed smooth style inserted into a stouter cylindrical shaft which is slightly striated (sete spinose). The bristles of the inferior branch are bifasciculate, and consist of one bundle composed of spinous bristles like those above described, and another composed of stouter and rather shorter sete with a striated slightly bent cylindrical shaft cut obliquely at the tip, to which portion is articulated a short claw-like piece, quite smooth, and slightly bent at the apex (sete falcate). The acicule are stout and of a black colour. The posterior feet (fig. 16) are all much smaller than the anterior, but more complicated in structure. Above the base of the dorsal or superior lobe we find a compressed foliaceous lamella. The superior setiferous tubercle is also furnished with a similar lamina, but very large, extending across the middle lobes of the foot. The ventral cirrus has ap- pended beneath its base another foliaceous lamina of about the same size as that attached to the dorsal lobe. ‘The cirri of these lobes are rather short, that of the dorsal lobe bemg longer than


the lobe, while the ventral cirrus is shorter than its corresponding lobe. The bristles are of two kinds,—those of the setiferous tubercles being numerous, compound, and consisting of a flattened lancet-shaped blade, smooth and rather sharp-pointed, let into a somewhat cylindrical shaft which is striated half across (sete cultrate) (fig. 1c). Mixed with these are a few (about four or five) long and stout sete of the falcate kind, but much longer and stronger than those of the anterior feet.

The species which approaches nearest to this is the Hetero- nereis renalis of Johnston=H. arctica of Oersted. It differs, however, in many respects. The relative size of the first and four succeeding segments, the colour and peculiar markings of the body, the canal running down the centre dorsally and ventrally, the number of anterior segments (in renalis or arctica being only twenty, while in this species there are twenty-one), the posterior portion of the body being more slender, and the tail destitute of cirri, the structure of the feet and cirri, &c.,—all separate it from that species.

The only specimen which I have seen was found by Mr. Laughrin at Polperro, Cornwall, in a muddy bottom, and is now in the national collection, British Museum.

Description of several new Species and Varieties of Tubicolous Annelides=Tribe Limrvora of Grube, in the Collection of the British Museum. By W. Barro, M.D., F.L.S.—Parr I.

(Plate 1.) [Read April 21, 1864.]

In the extensive collection of Annelides belonging to the British Museum, now in course of arrangement, there is a considerable number which appear to me to be undescribed. In many cases these are difficult to determine, from the fact that soft animals preserved in spirits do not always retain their form and consist- ence, or may be so hardened by the spirits as to offer great diffi- culties in making out the different parts. In the case of the Tubicolous Annelides, again, perhaps only the tubes or cases in which the animals dwell have been preserved, and thus it is almost impossible to refer them to their proper genera. As, however, notwithstanding these difficulties, we possess many


species which can be determined, it is my intention, from time to time, to offer to the Linnean Society, if approved of, descriptions of such species as appear to me new or worthy of particular attention.


The genus Serpula of Linnzeus, as established by the illustrious Swede, contained several species now known to belong to the genus Vermetus, a genus of mollusks. After these were with- drawn, there still remained many forms of shelly tubes which, though bearing a general resemblance to each other, were difficult to be arranged under one single genus. The animals, however, the architects of these tubes, after a time began to be a little more studied; and thus Lamarck, Blainville, Savigny, and some other naturalists were enabled to construct, upon good grounds, several genera to contain what might otherwise have been con- sidered similar forms. The last author who has paid particular attention to this Linnean genus is Dr. A. Philippi. His sub- divisions of Serpula are founded upon a character which has been discovered by malacologists to be of great value in the class Mol- luseca. The animals of the greater number of the species of Serpula which have been described possess a similar organ to that which characterizes so many of the Gasteropodous Mollusca. This is the operculum, which varies considerably in structure in the different species, and which thus forms an excellent character for dividing them into genera. As Philippi justly observes, this character has, moreover, the advantage that it may still be fre- quently observed in dried specimens preserved in museums.”

Little dependence can be placed on the shelly tube alone in distinguishing the species or even the genera: thus we find a similar shell possessed by two or three different Annelides be- longing to two or three distinct genera; for, as Philippi remarks in his paper*, “the shells of Serpula triquetra, Vermilia triquetra, and Pomatoceros tricuspis are difficult to distinguish without the animals.”

The structure of the operculum is far more varied, indeed, than it had been hitherto supposed to be; and I think Dr. Philippi has done good service to the students of this group of Annelides by so carefully distinguishing the structure of this appendage. It is owing to the fact mentioned above (that the operculum frequently

* Wiegmann’s Archiv for 1844, Bandi. p.186. Translated into English by Dr. Francis, in Ann. & Mag. of Nat. Hist. 1844, vol. xiv. p. 153-162.


remains behind in dried specimens), that I have been enabled to add some new species, belonging to the national collection, not hitherto described. The number of genera characterized by Philippi belonging to the Serpulide is ten, and the species enu- merated by him as occurring in the Mediterranean alone are twenty-five. Various other exotic species have been described at different times, and to these I now propose adding several more.

Genus EHupromatus, Philippi *. 1. Evromatus Bottont, Baird. (PL I. figs. 2, 2a, 6.)

Char. Animal (operculo excepto) ignotum. Operculum corneum, in- fundibuliforme, margine externo dense crenato, interne cuspidibus calcareis viginti dentatis instructum. ‘Testa rubra, triquetra, adhe- rens, transversim rugosa, dorso canaliculata.

Hab. Nova Zelandia. (Mus. Brit.)

This is a fine species of the family Serpulide, of which, however, we have as yet only received the shelly tube and the operculum of the animal. In our national collection we possess three good specimens of the shell and three specimens of the operculum. This portion of the animal is large, and by means of it we can distinctly refer the species to the genus Huwpomatus of Philippi. «It is rounded, slightly funnel-shaped, and of a horny texture (PL. I. fig. 2a). Externally the margin is densely crenated— the crenations being about eighty-eight or ninety in number, and tooth-like. Internally it is provided with a considerable number (about twenty) of hard, flattened, calcareous spikes (or, as Phi- lippi elsewhere calls them, horns, cormua), rismg up from the centre and strongly dentate—these teeth being four or five in number, stout, rather blunt, and arranged on one side only (fig. 2b). The spike itself terminates in a claw-shaped sharp point, slightly curved at the extremity. These spikes bear altogether an exact resemblance to the toothed extremity of the large claw of a lobster. The tube, in all the specimens which I have seen, is found attached to, and creeping on, dead shells (fig.2). In one specimen, which, however, is not quite perfect at the posterior extremity, it is about three inches in length. It is of a red colour, triquetrous where attached, but round at the anterior ex-

* The genus Eupomatus was constituted by Philippi to receive those species of Serpula that had the operculum furnished on the upper side, in the centre, with a certain number of moveable spikes. The operculum, he says, is horny, and in the Mediterranean species these spikes are horny also; but this latter character does not hold good in all the other species which have been described.


tremity or mouth when the tube raises itself up from the shell upon which it creeps, is corrugated transversely (the strie of growth?), and is marked with a large, distinct canal or furrow, running along the dorsal surface throughout its whole length.

Of the three specimens we possess, one, the largest, is at- tached to part of the shell of Halotis australis, another to a frag- ment of a species of Mactra, and the third is coiled round a species of Hlenchus.

They were all collected in New Zealand by Lieut.-Col. Bolton, R.E., to whom I have dedicated the species.

Genus Pracosrecus *, Philippi.


Numerous specimens of this species of Annelide were brought at different times from New Zealand, and deposited in the national collection, by the late lamented Dr. Andrew Sinclair, R.N., Lieut.-Col. Bolton, R.E., the late Captain Sir Everard Home, Bart., and His Excellency Governor Sir George Grey.

The tube or shell was briefly described by Dr. Gray in 1843, in the ‘Fauna of New Zealand’ appended to Dr. Dieffenbach’s ‘Travels in New Zealand.’ As only the operculum was known at that time to Dr. Gray, and as that resembles very much in form the operculum of the molluscous genus of shells Vermetus,’ he described it under the name of Vermetus cariniferus. A similar, and, I believe, the identical species has since that time been described and the animal figured by Schmarda, in his Neue wirbellose Thiere, 1861, under the name of Placostegus ceruleus. My chief object in this brief notice is to give a few more parti- culars with regard to this species, to correct the synonymy, and to restore the specific name attached to it originally by Dr. Gray. I wish also particularly to bring before the notice of the Society the fact that the animal gives out a beautiful dye or colour. The specimens which were the subjects of my examination had been for a number of years in the British Museum, some having been placed there in 1845, and others in 1847. Notwithstanding their having been so long dry, when softened in water, taken out of the tubes, and placed in spirits of wine, they imparted to the

* The genus Placostegus was constituted by Philippi to contain those species of Serpula which have a calcareous operculum (approaching very nearly in form to that of some of the Gasteropodous Mollusca) in the shape of a shallow disk, entire at the margin. x


liquid a beautiful and delicate red tint. The whole animal is of a fine blue colour, and the elegant tuft of branchial filaments intensely azure banded with white. In describing the tube of this species of Annelide in 1843, Dr. Gray had only one or two specimens to describe from, as the other specimens, which are now in the Collection of the British Museum, arrived long after that description was drawn up. He says, “the shell is thick, irre- gularly twisted, opaque white, with a high compressed wavy keel along the upper edge; mouth orbicular, with a tooth above it, formed by the keel. Operculum orbicular, horny.” In the col- lection there are two or three specimens which occur single, and were found creeping on dead shells. To these this description applies very well; but, in addition to those, we have various spe- cimens collected together into large masses nearly the size of a small human head, and consisting of several thousands of tubes twisted and twined together. In the generality of these we see the keel, mentioned by Dr. Gray as “high,” “compressed,” and forming “a tooth” at its extremity, becoming double as it were at a certain distance from the mouth of the tube, diverging a little from each other, the surface of the tube between the two keels being raised to the same height as the tube, and thus forming a rather broad flat tooth or strap which projects considerably be- yond the circular rim of the mouth. In many specimens this tooth is sharp-pointed, but in others it is blunt and rounded at the point.

Schmarda asserts that the species described by him is also a native of the Cape of Good Hope. His description applies better to the New Zealand specimens than to those from the Cape, and I was led at first to separate the two as distinct species. A more careful examination, however, of all the specimens we possess from both these habitats, has now induced me to consider those from the Cape of Good Hope to be only a variety of the other. Several specimens of this variety, occurrmg in large masses of some thousands of tubes clustered together, were col- lected by Dr. Krauss many years ago at the Cape of Good Hope, and are now in the Collection of the British Museum.

This variety I have named

PLACOSTEGUS CARINIFERUS, var. Kraussit ; and I here append a more detailed description of it. Char. Animal Placostego carinifero valde simile, sed minus intense czeru- leum. Branchiz pallide cerulez, albo-fasciate, filamentis circiter viginti et sex, uno latere plumosis. Setz pedum longe, numerosz,


simplices, ad finem curvate. Tubuli repentes, in massam magnam glomerati, dorso plane carinati, ligula plana, os supra extensa ter- minati.

Hab. Promontorio Bone Spei. (Mus. Brit.)

The animal differs from that of the specimens from New Zea- land in being less deeply coloured, and perhaps being longer in proportion to the size of the tube. This is smaller, and the dorsal keel is perhaps rather flatter and less sharp-pointed at its extremity. The two sets of specimens, however, agree in this . particular, that the animals, when softened in water and then immersed in spirits of wine, impart to the liquid the same beau- tiful red colour, though, as may be supposed from the animal being less deeply coloured, those from the Cape of Good Hope give out a slightly fainter hue.

3. PLACOSTEGUS LATILIGULATUS, Baird. (PII. figs. 3, 3a, 5.)

Char. Animal Placostego carinifero simile. Color corporis fuscus. Branchize albz, czruleo fasciate. Operculum calcareum, circulare, concavum, ceruleum. Tubuli repentes, flexuosi, dorso late carinati, carina in latam ligulam, supra os extensam desinens. Os interne ceruleum.

Hab. 2 (Mus. Brit.)

Only one mass, consisting of about 100 or more tubes, is in the possession of the Museum, and no history is attached to the specimen. The animal, softened in water and taken out of the tube, as far as can be ascertained from the imperfect state of the specimens, is very similar in appearance to the animal of the Placostegus cariniferus. It is about the same size as those taken from the var. Kraussii, from the Cape of Good Hope, but differs a good deal in colour. The body of the animal is of a fuscous- brown colour, the branchial filaments white, banded with blue, and the operculum is of an azure hue. ‘The tubes are broad, clustered together, and creeping in a very flexuous manner; they are of a bluish colour, the mouth of the tube deeply so, and the flat dorsal keel is somewhat of the same hue. The tube itself and the keel which runs along the back are broad, the latter part especially so at its extremity, where it terminates in a flat, strap- like tooth or sort of hood which extends some way beyond the rounded mouth (fig. 3 0). The surface throughout is much wrinkled,and the whole tube presents an irregular form of growth.

We have no history attached to this specimen; and were it not that the animals in some of the tubes still exist, the mass might be taken for a group of fossil tubes.


4. Pracosreaus Grayi, Baird. (P1.1. figs. 4, 4a, 6.)

Char. Animal, operculo excepto, ignotum. Operculum corneum ?, cir- culare, concavum. Tubuli flexuose repentes, depressi, valde rugosi, dorso late carinati, cara haud in ligulam os supra extensam desinens.

Hab. 2 (Mus. Brit.)

The only specimens we possess in the collection of the British Museum are a few tubes creeping on a stone. The operculum was found in two or three of the tubes, and, unlike the others belonging to the genus Placostegus, appears to be horny, of a cir- cular form, and hollow or concave on its upper surface. The tubes are flexuose, very rugose, and possess, like the last-de- seribed species (P. latiligulatus), a rather broad flat keel along the back of the shell. This keel is very rugose or wrinkled, and does not extend beyond the mouth of the tube, which is quite circular (fig. 46). The form of the tube is very irregular, and in several specimens at the larger extremity it is cemented as it were by a smooth, hard calcareous secretion to the stone to which it is attached. The specimens were presented many years ago to the Museum by Dr. Gray, whose name I have attached to the species.


Fig. 1. Heteronereis signata, natural size; 1a@, one of anterior feet; 16, one of posterior feet ; 1c, seta of ditto; 1d, head and 8 first segments of body : all magnified.

ig. 2. Hupomatus Boltoni, natural size, on Haliotis ; 2a, operculum of ditto ; 2b, one of the spikes of ditto: both magnified.

g. 3, Placostegus latiligulatus, nat. size ; 3 a, operculum of ditto: magnified ; 3 5, extremity of tube, nat. size.

g. 4. Placostegus Gray2, nat. size; 4a, operculum of ditto: magnified; 4 6, extremity of tube, nat. size.

2 Q




Parr IT.

(Plate II.) [Read June 2, 1864. | Genus Crmospira, Savigny.

Amongst the tubicolous Annelides belonging to the family Serpulide, the genus Cymospira of Savigny 1s remarkable. The branchie are described by Pallas and others as being very beau- tiful when seen in the living animal, and are rolled into spires of several turns. The operculum consists of a somewhat horny, elliptical, shallow plate, which supports two or more dentated horns or processes, generally near its hinder margin. The tubes of all the known species, of which only three or four have been described, burrow into or are attached to masses of Madrepore


in the seas of the West Indies. In the collection of Annelides belonging to the British Museum we possess several additional species, found inhabiting coral in other parts of the world. One of these was found on a coral reef in the Arabian Gulf, and, in the structure of the operculum, &c., materially differs from all that have been previously described. The following is its de- scription :—

5. CYMOSPIRA TRICORNIS, Baird. (Pl. II. fig. 1, operculum.)

Branchiz in spiras quinque convolutz. Operculum magnum, cornibus

tribus dentatis armatum.

The branchiz are disposed in five whorls. The filaments are densely plumose on one side and are of moderate length. The operculigerous filament is thick and fleshy. The operculum is large, nearly flat on the upper surface, and is armed with three stout, irregularly-toothed horns. The collar is large and fleshy. The spines of the thoracic segments are stout, rather short, and yellowish-coloured. The abdominal portion of the body is about 2 inches long, smooth on the ventral surface with the exception of a few longitudinal strong strie, and strongly and densely striated across on the dorsal surface. The tube in which this annelide dwells is large, nearly as thick as a man’s little finger, but so covered with coral deposit that it is very difficult to ascertain its form. We possess in the British Museum only two specimens of this animal, one of them being partly contained in a fragment of its tube. The mouth of this tube seems to be nearly round ; but the rest of it is so covered with madrepore, in a mass of which it had apparently